December 2008 Safety Briefing Lt Col Larry Brockshus MN Wg/SE
This Month • Winter Driving Safety • Christmas Fire Hazards • Flight Safety Opportunity • Induction Icing
Winter Driving • Winter is a beautiful time of the year, but can also be a very dangerous time of the year. • If you plan on traveling during the winter, it pays to be prepared for the unexpected. • Simply following a few simple driving habits to insure that you make it to your destination safely. • planning ahead • driving at a safe and legal speed • driving alert and sober • buckling up could
If you must use your car during a storm: • Plan your travel, selecting both primary and alternate routes. • Check latest weather information on your radio. • Try not to travel alone • Convoy (with another vehicle) if possible. • Drive carefully and defensively • Watch for ice patches on bridges and overpasses. • Take note of your odometer, exit numbers, or crossroads so if you crash or slide off the road you'll be able to identify your location • If a storm begins to be too much for you to handle, seek refuge immediately. • If your car should become disabled, stay with the vehicle, running your engine and heater for short intervals. • “Crack" a window in the vehicle to avoid carbon monoxide build-up.
Be courteous to those awaiting your arrival: • Call ahead to your destination just as you are leaving. • Let someone at your destination know the license plate number • Provide the route you'll be traveling • Give a realistic estimate of your travel time • If you have a cell phone, give that number to the party at your destination. • If you have friends/family at your place of origin, call when you arrive to let them know you have arrived safely. • If road conditions, tiredness, etc. delay or postpone a trip, make a phone call. Let people on both ends know of the delay.
Preparing your vehicle for winter driving • Reliable transportation is especially important in the winter. Not only should you keep your vehicle in top operating condition all year round - for safety and fuel economy, it is especially important to get it winterized to avoid any unpleasant or dangerous situation while traveling in frigid weather. • Check the following: • Ignition system • Fuel system • Belts • Fluid levels • Brakes • Exhaust system • Wiper blades and washer fluid • Snow tires • Tire tread and pressure • Defroster • Proper grade oil • Cooling system • Battery • Lights • Antifreeze
Winter Driving • Always fill the gasoline tank before entering open country • Even for a short distance • Fill-up long before the tank begins to run low • Minimizes condensation, and providing the maximum advantage in case of trouble. • A Citizens Band (CB) radio and/or cellular phone can be very useful • Clear all windows and lights of frost and snow. • Drive with your headlights on. • Stock your car with basic winter driving equipment • A scraper and brush, small shovel, jumper cables, tow chain and a bag of sand or cat litter for tire traction. • Also include road flares, a blanket, heavy boots, warm clothing, and flashlight with batteries. • Reverse the batteries in the case to avoid accidental switching, and burnout. Warm the batteries between your legs before using them.
Coffee can survival kit • A 2 or 3 pound metal coffee can to heat snow and store survival items • Punch 3 holes around the open top of can, equal distance apart • To suspend the can from the headliner : 60-inch length of heavy string, 3 large safety pins • 1 candle 2" diameter (place on lid under suspended can for melting snow) • Additional items to put inside can • 1 pocket knife • 3 pieces of bright cloth 2" wide x 36" long (tie to antenna) • Several packets of soup, hot chocolate, tea, bouillon cubes, etc. • Plastic spoon. • 1 small package of peanuts (provides protein) and fruit-flavored candy (orange slices, jelly beans, etc. - avoid chocolate, it can have a diuretic effect, which could cause you to become dehydrated). • 1 pair of socks and 1 pair of gloves or glove liners, depending on what will fit in the can (cotton is not recommended because it provides no insulation when wet). • 2 packages of book matches.
Coffee can survival kit • Additional items to put inside can • 1 sun shield blanket (to reflect body heat). • 1 pen light and batteries (keep separate). • 2 quarters and 2 dimes for telephone calls. • When kit is complete, place stocking cap over kit and carry in passenger compartment of car in case you go into a ditch and can't get to or open the trunk. • Consider adding: • Large plastic garbage bag. • Pencil stub and paper. • Plastic whistle.
In case you're stranded while driving in winter • Stay in your vehicle. Walking in a storm can be very dangerous. You can lose your way, wander out of reach, become exhausted, collapse and risk your life. Your vehicle itself is a good shelter. • Avoid overexertion. Attempting to push your car, trying to jack it into a new position or shoveling snow takes great effort in storm conditions. You could risk heart attack or other injury. • Calm down and think. The storm will end and you will be found. Don't work enough to get hot and sweaty. Wet clothing loses insulation quality making you more susceptible to the effects of hypothermia. • Keep fresh air in your vehicle. It is much better to be chilly or cold and awake than to become comfortably warm and slip into unconsciousness. Freezing-wet or wind-driven snow can plug your vehicle's exhaust system causing deadly carbon monoxide gas to enter your vehicle. • Don't run the engine-unless you are certain the exhaust pipe is free of snow or other objects. Keep the radiator free from snow to prevent the engine from overheating.
In case you're stranded while driving in winter • Keep your blood circulating freely by loosening tight clothing, changing positions frequently and moving your arms and legs. Huddle close to one another. Rub your hands together or put them under your armpits or between your legs. Remove your shoes occasionally and rub your feet. • Don't expect to be comfortable. The challenge is to survive until you're found. • If you have access to a telephone, you should dial 911 to summon help. In other states you may be able to dial 911 or "0" to get the operator on the line. When you talk with authorities, be prepared to: • Describe the location, condition of your companions and the trouble you are experiencing. • Listen for questions. • Follow any instructions. You may be told you should stay where you are to guide rescuers or to return to the scene. • Do not hang up until you know who you have spoken with and what will happen next.
Frostbite • Exposed skin can freeze within one minute at wind-chill equivalent temperatures below -25 Fahrenheit. • Frostbite affects the extremities, such as fingers and toes. • If a body part has been frostbitten once, it is more susceptible to frostbite again, even in milder conditions. • Redness and a burning sensation are indications frostbite will occur unless the extremity is warmed. • Numbness is an indication that frostbite has already taken place. • If frostbite is discovered, hold the affected part tightly against the warm skin or another part of the body; (for example place frozen fingers under arm). • When thoroughly warmed, keep covered and make an effort to keep area from freezing again.
Hypothermia • Remember hypothermia (rapid loss of body temperature) can happen to anyone! • Under conditions of prolonged exposure to cold, the body may begin to lose heat faster than it can produce it. • The symptoms become very apparent, and include: • Uncontrollable shivering • Vague, slow, slurred speech • Memory lapses • Incoherence • Immobile, fumbling hands • Frequent stumbling • Lurching gait • Drowsiness • Apparent exhaustion • If you believe you are experiencing these symptoms, it is important that you make every effort to get warm. • Avoid hypothermia by staying dry and dressing warmly. If wet, remove wet clothing and get into warm, dry clothes, blankets or a sleeping bag. Stay awake and alert. • If a hypothermia victim loses consciousness, seek medical attention immediately.
A Factsheet on Holiday Fire Prevention • Each year fires occurring during the holiday season claim the lives of over 400 Americans, • Injure 1,650 more, and cause over $990 million in damage. • According to the U. S. Fire Administration (USFA), there are simple life-saving steps you can take to ensure a safe and happy holiday.
Preventing Christmas Tree Fires • A burning tree can rapidly fill a room with fire and deadly gases. • Selecting a Tree for the Holiday • Needles on fresh trees should be green and hard to pull back from the branches, and the needle should not break if the tree has been freshly cut. The trunk should be sticky to the touch. • Old trees can be identified by bouncing the tree trunk on the ground. If many needles fall off, the tree has been cut too long, has probably dried out, and is a fire hazard. • Caring for Your Tree • Do not place your tree close to a heat source, including a fireplace or heat vent. The heat will dry out the tree ,causing it to be more easily ignited by heat, flame or sparks. • Do not put your live tree up too early or leave it up for longer than twoweeks. Keep the tree stand filled with water at all times.
Preventing Christmas Tree Fires • Disposing of Your Tree • Never put tree branches or needles in a fireplace or woodburning stove. • When the tree becomes dry, discard it promptly. • The best way to dispose of your tree is by taking it to a recycling center or having it hauled away by a community pick-up service. • Maintain Your Holiday Lights Inspect holiday lights each year for frayed wires, bare spots, gaps in the insulation, broken or cracked sockets, and excessive kinking or wear before putting them up. Use only lighting listed by an approved testing laboratory. • Do Not Overload Electrical Outlets • Do not link more than three light strands, unless the directions indicate it is safe. • Connect strings of lights to an extension cord before plugging the cord in to the outlet. • Periodically check the wires – they should not be warm to the touch. • Do Not Leave Holiday Lights on Unattended
Holiday Decorations • Use Only Non-flammable Decorations All decorations should be nonflammable or flame-retardant and placed away from heat vents. • Never Put Wrapping Paper in a Fireplace It can result in a very large fire, throwing off dangerous sparks and embers that may result in a chimney fire. • Artificial Christmas Trees If you are using a metallic or artificial tree, make sure it is flame retardant. Candle Care • Avoid Using Lit Candles If you do use them, make sure they are in stable holders and place them where they cannot be easily knocked down. Never leave the house with candles burning. • Never Put Lit Candles on a Tree Do not go near a Christmas tree with an open flame - candles, lighters or matches. Finally, as in every season, have working smoke alarms installed on every level of your home, test them monthly and keep them clean and equipped with fresh batteries at all times. Know when and how to call for help. And remember to practice your home escape plan.
Flight Safety Opportunity • "The Pilot and the Chart Maker, VFR Charts from the Expert” • Topic : Aeronautical charts and products for all. Presented by the Chart Wizard from Washington, D.C, Mr. Richard Neher. • Date and Time: Monday, January 19, 2009, starting at 7:00 pm • Brief Description: This dynamic, entertaining and educational program is presented by the premiere cartographer himself, Richard Neher, from the Aeronautical Charting Office in Washington, D.C. Whether you use paper charts, GPS, MFD or EFB after this program you will look down at the earth in a whole new way. • Location of Event: • Thunderbird Aviation14091 Pioneer TrailEden Prairie, MN 55347
Induction Ice • Carburetor icingconsists of ice accumulation that blocks the carburetor venturi • Impact ice, a type of induction icing, occur when temperatures are near to, or colder than, the freezing point of 0° C. Impact ice can block the air filter. • In severe cases, it can reduce intake flow to the point that the engine may stop.
Carburetor icing Charles’ and Gay-Lussac’s Law- Temp and pressure are directly proportional
Corrective Measures • A fuel injected engine does not prevent impact ice. • If you suspect impact ice, activate carb heat or, for fuel injected engines, alternate air. • Expect carb icing when relative humidity is high and temperatures are between 20°F and 70°F. Indications of carb ice include rough running engine, and loss of RPM (fixed pitch propeller) or loss of manifold pressure (constant speed propeller). • In general, apply carb heat or alternate air immediately if you suspect carb icing. Be prepared for an initial additional decrease in engine performance as the ice melts and moves through the system. • Always follow specific manufacturer's recommendations.