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SCIENCE 10 LIFE SCIENCE: GENETICS PowerPoint Presentation
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SCIENCE 10 LIFE SCIENCE: GENETICS

SCIENCE 10 LIFE SCIENCE: GENETICS

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SCIENCE 10 LIFE SCIENCE: GENETICS

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  1. SCIENCE 10 LIFE SCIENCE: GENETICS Genome British Columbia, 2004 www.genomicseducation.ca

  2. I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins?

  3. I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? ·   Recall from the unit on the cell that all of its activities are controlled by a nucleus.

  4. I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? ·   Recall from the unit on the cell that all of its activities are controlled by a nucleus. This nucleus contains DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, which contains the information necessary to make a variety of proteins.

  5. I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.) · Proteins perform many functions in your body, such as those found in your muscles that allow you to move or those in your mouth that breakdown the starch in bread.

  6. I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.) · Proteins perform many functions in your body, such as those found in your muscles that allow you to move or those in your mouth that breakdown the starch in bread. These proteins also perform and control many functions within the cell, but are only made when needed.

  7. I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.) · The instructions to make these proteins are contained in the genetic code.

  8. I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.) · The instructions to make these proteins are contained in the genetic code. This code consists of four different molecules known as bases that are grouped into triplets.

  9. I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.) · The instructions to make these proteins are contained in the genetic code. This code consists of four different molecules known as bases that are grouped into triplets. Each triplet codes for one of twenty amino acids, the building blocks used to build these proteins.

  10. I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.) Each triplet codes for one of twenty amino acids, the building blocks used to build these proteins. The DNA determines what amino acids, how many of each amino acid, and the order of these amino acids to use for each protein.

  11. I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.) Each triplet codes for one of twenty amino acids, the building blocks used to build these proteins. The DNA determines what amino acids, how many of each amino acid, and the order of these amino acids to use for each protein. It’s like writing sentences with three letter words from a four letter alphabet.

  12. I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.) · A gene is a section of DNA that contains the genetic code for a specific protein, so it can determine how an organism appears and functions.

  13. II. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics?

  14. II. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? What is inheritance?

  15. II. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? • What is inheritance? • Inheritance is the transfer of characteristics from parents to their offspring, such as hair, eye, and skin colour.

  16. II. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? • What is inheritance? • Inheritance is the transfer of characteristics from parents to their offspring, such as hair, eye, and skin colour. This explains why your traits resemble your parents and brother/sister.

  17. II. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.) Who was Mendel?

  18. II. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.) • Who was Mendel? • Gregor Mendel (1822 – 1868) was an Austrian monk who experimented with pea plants to determine how seven different, easily observed traits are inherited:

  19. II. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.) • Who was Mendel? • Gregor Mendel (1822 – 1868) was an Austrian monk who experimented with pea plants to determine how seven different, easily observed traits are inherited: seed shape and colour, pod shape and colour, flower colour and location, and stem length.

  20. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.) • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments?

  21. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.) • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • He realized that traits are inherited in predictable phenotype ratios.

  22. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • He realized that traits are inherited in predictable phenotype ratios. The phenotype are traits of organism observed in its appearance or behaviour, which is determined by its genes.

  23. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • He realized that traits are inherited in predictable phenotype ratios. The phenotype are traits of organism observed in its appearance or behaviour, which is determined by its genes. • A trait can have different forms if there are different forms of a gene at the same position of DNA, which are known as alleles.

  24. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • If an organism has the same allele from each parent, then it is homozygous and is called a purebred.

  25. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • If an organism has the same allele from each parent, then it is homozygous and is called a purebred. However, if it has a different allele from each parent, then it is heterozygous and is called a hybrid.

  26. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results.

  27. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results. 

  28. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results.  P generation

  29. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results. P generation purebred parents 

  30. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results. P generation purebred parents  all purple

  31. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results. P generation purebred parents  F1 generation (first falial) all purple

  32. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results. P generation purebred parents  F1 generation (first falial) hybrid offspring all purple

  33. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • When he crossed two of these purple–flowered hybrid offspring from the F1 generation, he observed the following results.

  34. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • When he crossed two of these purple–flowered hybrid offspring from the F1 generation, he observed the following results. 

  35. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • When he crossed two of these purple–flowered hybrid offspring from the F1 generation, he observed the following results. F1 generation hybrid offspring 

  36. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • When he crossed two of these purple–flowered hybrid offspring from the F1 generation, he observed the following results. F1 generation hybrid offspring  ¼ white ¾ purple

  37. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • When he crossed two of these purple–flowered hybrid offspring from the F1 generation, he observed the following results. F1 generation hybrid offspring  F2 generation (second falial) ¼ white ¾ purple

  38. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments?

  39. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • These results showed that each parent passed on a single allele to the offspring, such that the seed and the pollen only carry one allele each, not both.

  40. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • These results showed that each parent passed on a single allele to the offspring, such that the seed and the pollen only carry one allele each, not both. • It also showed that each trait is inherited separately from each other, such that one trait did not affect how another trait was inherited.

  41. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • Finally, it showed that the dominant purple colour masked or hid the recessive white colour.

  42. What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? • Finally, it showed that the dominant purple colour masked or hid the recessive white colour. For the white colour to be observed, the flower must have two alleles for the white colour, such that is must be a purebred for this trait.

  43. How can we predict these results?

  44. How can we predict these results? • We can use a Punnett square to determine determined the probability, the chances of a particular outcome.

  45. How can we predict these results? • To complete a Punnett square, we use a letter to represent each trait.

  46. How can we predict these results? • To complete a Punnett square, we use a letter to represent each trait. We represent the dominant allele with a capital letter, and the recessive allele is given the same letter but in lower case.

  47. How can we predict these results? • To complete a Punnett square, we use a letter to represent each trait. We represent the dominant allele with a capital letter, and the recessive allele is given the same letter but in lower case. For the pea plant flowers, the dominant purple colour = P and the recessive white colour = p.

  48. How can we predict these results? • To complete a Punnett square, we use a letter to represent each trait. We represent the dominant allele with a capital letter, and the recessive allele is given the same letter but in lower case. For the pea plant flowers, the dominant purple colour = P and the recessive white colour = p. If both parents are pure bred, then purple coloured parent must be PP and the white coloured parent must be pp.

  49. How can we predict these results? • To complete a Punnett square, we use a letter to represent each trait. We represent the dominant allele with a capital letter, and the recessive allele is given the same letter but in lower case. For the pea plant flowers, the dominant purple colour = P and the recessive white colour = p. If both parents are pure bred, then purple coloured parent must be PP and the white coloured parent must be pp. To predict the results of a cross, we insert the alleles from each parent into the Punnett square.

  50. How can we predict these results?