The Effects of Focused Attention and Varied Peripheral and Central Changes on Change Blindness and Change Detection - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Effects of Focused Attention and Varied Peripheral and Central Changes on Change Blindness and Change Detection

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The Effects of Focused Attention and Varied Peripheral and Central Changes on Change Blindness and Change Detection
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The Effects of Focused Attention and Varied Peripheral and Central Changes on Change Blindness and Change Detection

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  1. The Effects of Focused Attention and Varied Peripheral and Central Changes on Change Blindness and Change Detection Teal Maxwell Emily Welch Naomi Janett Jessica Padgett

  2. Defining Terms • Change Blindness • Change Detection • Focused Attention

  3. Previous ResearchType of Change • Central changes were very frequently detected, but peripheral changes were rarely detected unless the participants’ attention was directed to the peripheral images (Turatto, Angrilli, Mazza, Umilta, & Driver 2002). • Peripheral changes take longer to detect (Shore & Klein, 2000).

  4. Previous ResearchArea of Focus • Usually details of an image can only be remembered if one’s attention is focused on the feature that is changing (Rensink,O’Regan & Clark 1997). • Cueing participants to the area of change substantially increases their ability to detect a change (Turatto, Angrilli, Mazza, Umilta, & Driver 2002).

  5. Variables • Independent • Type of Change (Central or Peripheral) • Area of Focus (Central, Peripheral, or None) • Dependent • Number of Correctly Identified Changes (out of 5)

  6. Hypothesis • Central changes will be more easily detected than peripheral changes • With attention guidance more changes will be detected • Participants in the condition with central changes and centrally focused attention will correctly detect more changes than the other experimental conditions

  7. MethodParticipants • 200 total participants • 31 Central Change and Central Focus • 37 Central Change and Peripheral Focus • 37 Central Change and No Focus • 30 Peripheral Change and Central Focus • 30 Peripheral Change and Peripheral Focus • 35 Peripheral Change and No Focus • Female Mount Holyoke College students • Random assignment

  8. Materials • 2 photos per condition (6 total conditions) • Photos taken by an Olympus digital camera

  9. Materials • Pictures printed on a 8.5” x 11” sheet of paper • Changes detected were reported on 3” x 5” notecard • Stopwatch used for timing • Consent form • Debriefing statement

  10. Procedure • Participant signed consent form • Participants given notecard • Directions read depending on condition • Original photo shown for 30 seconds • 5 second pause • Modified photo shown for 30 seconds • Participants recorded changes detected • Debriefing statement presented

  11. Original Central

  12. Original Peripheral

  13. Original with Focus Central with Focus

  14. Original with Focus Peripheral with Focus

  15. ResultsDependent Variable • The number of correctly detected changes out of a possible 5

  16. Hypothesis • Central changes will be more easily detected than peripheral changes • With attention guidance more changes will be detected • Participants in the condition with central changes and centrally focused attention will correctly detect more changes than the other experimental conditions

  17. ResultsAnalysis • Data were analyzed using a two-way independent groups ANOVA • Central changes • Mean: 3.03 • Standard Deviation: 1.63 • Peripheral changes • Mean: 1.71 • Standard Deviation: 1.41 • Results significant, p <.001

  18. ResultsAnalysis • Central focus • Mean: 2.56 • Standard Deviation: 2.22 • Peripheral focus • Mean: 1.89 • Standard Deviation: 1.23 • No focus • Mean: 2.74 • Standard Deviation: 1.33

  19. Central Change-Central Focus Mean: 4.56 Standard Deviation: 0.57 Central Change-Peripheral Focus Mean: 1.43 Standard Deviation: 1.28 Central Change-No Focus Mean: 3.35 Standard Deviation: 1.03 Peripheral Change-Central Focus Mean: 0.5 Standard Deviation: 1.14 Peripheral Change-Peripheral Focus Mean: 2.47 Standard Deviation: 0.90 Peripheral Change-No Focus Mean: 2.09 Standard Deviation: 1.31 ResultsAnalysis Results significant at p <.001 level

  20. DiscussionMain Effect One • Participants in the central condition correctly detected significantly more changes than participants in the peripheral condition. • Central changes are detected more frequently (Turatto, et al. 2002).

  21. DiscussionMain Effect Two • Participants who received central attention guidance or no attention guidance detected significantly more changes than those receiving peripheral guidance. • When attention is focused on the central aspects of an image, changes are detected more frequently than when no guidance is given (Turatto, et al. 2002).

  22. DiscussionInteraction • For central changes • those who received central attention guidance performed better than those receiving peripheral or no attention guidance • those who received no attention guidance performed better than those receiving peripheral attention guidance • For peripheral changes • those who received peripheral attention guidance correctly detected more changes than those receiving central or no attention guidance. • those who received no attention guidance correctly detected more changes than those receiving central attention guidance

  23. DiscussionInteraction - Previous Research • When attention is directed to the area in which the change is taking place, the change is more likely to be detected (Turatto, et al. 2002). • Without attention guidance, new stimuli “overwrite” what is stored in visual memory (Rensink, et al. 1997).

  24. DiscussionImplications • Central changes are more often detected than peripheral changes • Attention is naturally focused centrally • Attention plays a role in change detection

  25. Questions? • THE END