Ensuring Safe Children:Day Care Home Safety Issues What should you be looking for? Caredy Cochran, CHES Jen Leftwich, MS
Safety in the Home • Cleaning Supplies • Retained in original, labeled container • Stored in locked cabinets • Electrical Outlets • Covered with protective caps • Extension Cords • Unplugged and put away when not in use • No signs of fraying
Safety in the Home • Smoke Detectors • Tested and confirmed to be working • At least one on each level of building • Fire drills conducted periodically • Fire Extinguisher • Within inspection date • Easily accessible • Carbon Monoxide Detectors • At least one is recommended
Safety in the Home • Telephone • Emergency phone #’s listed near phone • 9-1-1 • Poison Control Center • Phone cord not dangling in child’s reach
Safety in the Home • Appliances • Unplugged when not in use • Cords not dangling over edges of counters • Hazardous Items • Cleaners, toothpicks, and plastic bags stored high above child’s reach in locked cabinet • Knives, scissors, matches, lighters, and sharp utensils stored in locked drawers or cabinets
Safety in the Home • Window shade cords • Cords wrapped high above a child’s reach (includes reaching from the sofa, crib, or other potential climbing position) • Stairways • Child safety gates at top and bottom of staircases
Safety in the Home • Trash • Indoor trash cans covered • Outdoor trash cans covered with locking lids • Pools • Securely fenced so that children do not have access without adult knowledge and supervision • Children can drown in 2 inches of water
Safety in the Home • Poisonous Substances • Vitamins, medicines, shampoos, lotions, toothpastes, mouthwash, alcoholic beverages, cleaning products, and air fresheners MUST be kept in a locked cabinet • Medications • Labeled with child’s name • Stored away from food • If requires refrigeration, it should be placed in a covered leak-proof, child-proof container & stored at the back of the refrigerator Jill Hill
Did you know? • 1-2 teaspoons of salt ingested by a 25-lb. child can cause irritability, lethargy, and possibly seizures. • More than 1½ tablespoons can be lethal.
Choking Prevention • Every 5 days, a child in the U.S. dies from choking on food. • Foods most commonly choked on: • Hot dogs sliced in rounds • Whole grapes • Hard candy • Nuts
Choking Prevention • Items unsafe for children under age 4: • smaller than 1¼ inch circle OR • smaller than 2¼ inches long • purchase small parts tester at toy or baby store • Children should be seated and under adult supervision during meals and snacks.
Choking Prevention Dangerous foods for children under age 6: • Firm, smooth, or slippery foods that slide down throat before chewing: - hot dog rounds - hard candy - large pieces of fruit - peanuts - whole grapes - cherries with pits • Small, dry, hard foods difficult to chew & easy to swallow whole: - small pieces of raw carrot, celery, or other raw hard vegetables - nuts and seeds - chips, pretzels, popcorn • Sticky or tough foods that do not break apart easily: - spoonfuls of peanut butter - chunks of meat - raisins and other dried fruits - chewing gum - marshmallows
Choking Prevention Dangerous objects for children under age 6: • Coins, button-cell batteries • Buttons (loose as well as those attached to clothing) • Deflated or broken balloons • Pencils, crayons, and erasers • Pen and marker caps • Rings, earrings • Nails, screws, staples, safety pins, tacks, etc. • Small toys, such as tiny figures or toys with small parts • Balls or marbles • Holiday decorations, including lights, tinsel, or toy-like ornaments • Small stones • Damaged or loose nipples on pacifiers or bottles
Choking Prevention Some foods can be made safer: • Hot dogs • Cut lengthwise and then into small pieces • Whole grapes • Cut into quarters • Raw carrots • Cooked until slightly soft, then chop finely or cut into thin strips • Peanut butter • Spread thinly on crackers • Mixed with applesauce and spread thinly on bread
Hand Washing Did you know? 20% of consumers do NOT wash hands before preparing food.
Hand Washing Staff and children MUST follow hand washing guidelines: • Use sink designated ONLY for hand washing • Use soap and warm (100˚F) running water • Lather hands with soap up to the elbows • Rub hands together for 20 seconds • Wash backs of hands, wrists, between fingers, and under fingernails • Use a fingernail brush if necessary • Rinse hands under warm running water • Dry hands with paper towel or air dryer • Turn off running water with a paper towel, not bare hands
Hand Washing Staff and children shall wash their hands when: • Preparing, handling, or serving food (including bottles) • Feeding an infant • Eating, drinking, or smoking • Changing diapers • Using the bathroom • Assisting a child in the bathroom • Sneezing, coughing, and wiping runny noses • Setting the table or sitting down to eat • Handling pets or other animals • Coming in contact with body fluids
Hand Washing • Activity • Soapy Solutions
Safety in the Kitchen Why is food safety a concern? • 76 million cases of foodborne illness yearly • commonly referred to as “food poisoning” • 5,000 deaths related to foodborne illnesses yearly What is a foodborne illness? • Often referred to as “the flu” • Infected food may show NO signs of spoilage • Common causes of foodborne illness: • Poor personal hygiene • Cross-contamination • Abuse of time/temperature relationship
Personal Hygiene • Staff should: • Bathe daily & shampoo hair frequently • Wear hair restraint • Wear fresh laundered work clothes/uniforms & aprons • Keep fingernails clean, trimmed, and unpolished • Not wear artificial nails • Not wear jewelry, with exception of plain wedding band • Wash hands correctly & frequently • Wash hands before putting on gloves or changing into a new pair • Change gloves with each new task • Wear gloves at all times if bandaged wound on hands • Not touch ready to eat food with bare hands • Stay away from food when feeling ill
Cross-Contamination 3 Types of Cross Contamination: • Hand to Food • Good personal hygiene • Proper handwashing • Single-use gloves • Food to Food • Raw foods stored below cooked foods & ready-to-eat foods • Fresh produce washed before peeling or serving raw • Raw meat and raw fruits/vegetables NOT touching nor prepared on the same surface • Equipment to Food • Wiping cloths sanitized • Reusable towels used only for sanitizing equipment surfaces – not for drying hands, utensils, etc. • Equipment sanitized • Knives, cutting boards, food contact surfaces
Washing Dishes • Food scraped from plates, utensils, & equipment • Dishes washed: • 3-compartment sink • Wash • Rinse • Sanitize • Heat: 171˚F water for at least 30 seconds • Solution: ¾ to 1½ Tbsp. of liquid chlorine bleach + 1 gallon water • Dishwasher • Dishes allowed to air-dry
Four Steps for Food Safety CLEAN SEPARATE COOK CHILL
CLEAN • Wash hands after using the bathroom, changing diapers, or handling pets. • Wash hands, working surfaces, and utensils after touching raw meat or poultry. • Raw meat, poultry, and eggs can contain dangerous bacteria. To keep bacteria from spreading, wash anything that comes in contact with these raw foods.
CLEAN • Dishcloths/sponges • should NOT be rinsed and reused after cleaning up areas where uncooked meat has been handled • millions of bacteria form in just a few hours • use paper towels and discard immediately • Plastic tablecloths/placemats • wash with clean dishcloths and hot soapy water • disinfect with mixture of ¼ cup liquid chlorine bleach and 1 gallon water • allow to air-dry • Equipment • clean after every use • cutting boards (plastic, non-porous, acrylic, and wooden)
SEPARATE • Use separate cutting board for fresh produce and a separate one for raw meat, poultry, and seafood. • Never place cooked food back on the same plate or cutting board that previously held raw food. • To prevent juices from raw meat, poultry, or seafood from dripping onto other foods in the refrigerator, put raw foods in sealed containers or plastic bags and place on trays on the lowest shelf in the refrigerator. • Never defrost food at room temperature. Food should be thawed in the refrigerator, in cold water, or in the microwave.
COOK • Foods are properly cooked when they are heated for a long enough time and at a high enough temperature to kill bacteria that can cause foodborne illness. • You can become sick anytime from 20 minutes to 6 weeks after eating food with some types of harmful bacteria. • Bacteria grow from 1 to 1 million in only 4 hours.
COOK • Use a food thermometer to make sure foods are cooked to the safe internal temperature. • Roasts & steaks – 145˚F • Ground beef – 160˚F • Whole chicken or turkey – 180˚F • Leftovers – 165˚F • Processed ready-to-eat foods – 140˚F • Place thermometer in the thickest part of most foods, away from bone and fat. • Clean thermometer after each use.
COOK • Temperature Danger Zone 41˚F – 140˚F • Less than 4 hours to avoid foodborne illness • Food should NOT be removed from refrigerator until 20 minutes before serving.
Keep Hot Foods Hot!KeepCold FoodsCold! 140˚F DANGER 41˚F
CHILL • Cooked food needs to go into the refrigerator while it is still hot. It is NOT safe to cool it on the counter. • pour into shallow pans, cut large food • cover loosely • stainless steel cools faster than plastic • stir frequently • document temperatures • cover food tightly and label when it reaches 41˚F • To prevent bacteria, refrigerate or freeze perishables, prepared foods, and leftovers within 4 hours or less.
CHILL • Temperatures during cooling process: • from 140°F to 70°F within 2 hours • from 70°F to 41°F within 4 hours • if food has not reached 70°F within 2 hours, it MUST be immediately reheated to 165°F for 15 seconds • Refrigerator should not be overstuffed. Cold air needs to circulate to keep food safe.
How low will it go? How long would it take for the temperature to drop to a safe level if you were to refrigerate an 8-inch stock pot of steaming chicken soup? Q:
How low will it go? 24 hours! Hot food should be placed in shallow containers in layers less than 3 inches deep. A:
Dry Storage Area • 50˚F - 70˚F • FIFO = First In, First Out • Purchase date written on new foods • Newer foods moved to back • Older foods moved to front • Foods at least 6 inches off the floor • Clean, dry, well-ventilated area • Dry ingredients in containers with tight-fitting lids • NO dented cans, broken packages, signs of pests • All foods labeled and dated • NO chemicals stored near food
Cold Storage Area • Thermometer • 41˚F or lower in all areas • allows for maximum circulation • FIFO • Foods covered, labeled, and dated • Ready-to-eat foods above raw meats
Frozen Storage Area • Thermometer • 0˚F or lower in all areas • allows for maximum circulation • FIFO • Foods covered, labeled, and dated • Frozen products frozen until ready to cook
Wrap-up • Questions? • Additional activities/resources