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Mass-Wasting

Mass-Wasting

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Mass-Wasting

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  1. Mass-Wasting Movement of Large Amounts of Material Downhill under Gravity

  2. Types of Mass Wasting • Slow vs. Fast • Wet vs. Dry • Cohesive vs. Fragmented

  3. Types of Mass Wasting • Creep • Slow Landslide • Earthflow, Mudflow, Debris Flow • Avalanche • Rockfall • Slump • Complex Landslide

  4. Factors in Mass Wasting • Climate • Moisture • Steep Slopes • Weak Rocks • Existing Failure Surfaces

  5. Soil Creep

  6. Soil Creep

  7. Soil Creep

  8. Soil Creep, California

  9. Creep, North Carolina

  10. Colluvium, San Bernardino Mountains, California

  11. Mystery or Soil Creep?

  12. Four Years’ Mass-Wasting, Bosnia

  13. Four Years’ Mass-Wasting, Bosnia • 100*40/2 cm2 = 2000 cm2 (4 years) • = 500 cm2 /year • Removed from 1 km slope per year = 500 cm2 /100,000 cm= 1 cm/200 yr= 5000 cm (50 m)/m.y. = 50m /m.y. • A 1-m (100 cm) soil mantle yields 500 cm2 /year, so movement = 500 cm2 /year/100 cm= 5 cm/year

  14. Debris Flow, Utah

  15. Landslide, Wyoming

  16. Geological Disneyland, Utah

  17. Landslide, Utah

  18. Landslide, Wyoming

  19. Landslide and Slope Control, Wyoming

  20. Landslide, Wyoming

  21. Bridge of the Gods, Washington

  22. Bridge of the Gods, Washington

  23. Gros Ventre Slide, Wyoming, 1925

  24. Slide Lake, Wyoming

  25. Gros Ventre Slide, Wyoming

  26. Landslide, Pakistan, January 4, 2010

  27. Landslide, Pakistan, January 4, 2010

  28. Urban Planning, San Diego

  29. Martian Landslide

  30. Active Landslide on Mars

  31. Active Landslide on Mars

  32. Rockfalls, Yosemite, California

  33. Rockfalls, Yosemite, California

  34. Block Slide, Yosemite

  35. Rockslide, Yosemite

  36. Slumps? Baird Creek

  37. Avalanche Chute, Colorado

  38. Landslide, Mount Saint Helens

  39. Aberfan, Wales • October 21, 1966, a large waste pile from coal mining collapsed • Village school was in the path of the slide • 144 people killed, 116 of them children • Weathering of coal mine waste liberates sulfuric acid and weakens waste piles • Seepage beneath pile contributed

  40. Coal Tip, England

  41. Aberfan Slide

  42. Inquiry Board, 1967 • the Aberfan Disaster is a terrifying tale of bungling ineptitude by many men charged with tasks for which they were totally unfitted, of failure to heed clear warnings, and of total lack of direction from above. Not villains but decent men, led astray by foolishness or by ignorance or by both in combination, are responsible for what happened at Aberfan.

  43. Sherman Glacier, Alaska, March 27, 1964

  44. Sherman Glacier, Alaska, March 27, 1964

  45. Blackhawk Landslide, California

  46. Saidmareh Landslide, Iran

  47. Landslide on Iapetus

  48. Viaont, Italy, October 9, 1963 1800 people died.

  49. Yungay, Peru, May 31, 1970

  50. Yungay, Peru, May 31, 1970