Download
sustaining wild species n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Sustaining Wild Species PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Sustaining Wild Species

Sustaining Wild Species

639 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Sustaining Wild Species

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Sustaining Wild Species G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13th Edition Chapter 22 Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College

  2. Human Impacts on Biodiversity Fig. 22-2 p. 561

  3. Increasing Biodiversity • Physically diverse habitat • Moderate environmental disturbance • Small variations in conditions • Middle stages of ecological succession

  4. Decreasing Biodiversity • Environmental stress • Large environmental disturbance • Extreme environmental conditions • Severe limiting factors • Introduction of alien species • Geographic isolation

  5. US Diversity Fig. 22-3 p. 562

  6. Strategies for Protecting Biodiversity • Species approach • Ecosystem approach Fig. 22-5 p. 563

  7. Species Extinction • Local extinction • Ecological extinction • Biological extinction

  8. Endangered and Threatened Species • Endangered species • Threatened (vulnerable) species • Rare species Fig. 22-7 p. 564 Florida manatee Northern spotted owl (threatened) Bannerman's turaco (Africa) Gray wolf Florida panther © 2004 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

  9. Extinction Risks • Factors: population size, habitat, and genetics • Population viability analysis • Minimum viable population • Minimum dynamic area • Characteristics of extinction-prone species (refer to Fig. 22-8 p. 566)

  10. Extinction Rates • Background (natural) rate of extinction • Massextinction • Adaptiveradiations

  11. Why Should We Care About Biodiversity? • Instrumental value • Intrinsic value See Spotlight p. 571 Fig. 22-10p. 569

  12. Causes of Depletion of Wild Species • Human population growth • Failure to value the environment or ecological services • Increasing per capita resource use • Increasing use of Earth’s primary productivity • Poverty

  13. Causes of Premature Extinction of Wild Species • Habitat degradation • Introduction of non-native species Fig. 22-12 p. 572

  14. Threats from Nonnative Species Arrival Roles of non- native species Examples (p. 576) See Connections p. 577 and Case Study p. 579 Fig. 22-19 p. 579

  15. Other Extinction Threats Hunting and Poaching Predators and Pest Control Exotic Pets and Decorative Plants Climate Change and Pollution

  16. Protecting Wild Species: The Research and Legal Approaches • Bioinformatics • International Treaties: CITES • National Laws: Lacey Act Endangered Species Act • Habitat conservation plans

  17. Protecting Wild Species: The Sanctuary Approach • Wildlife refuges and protected areas • Gene banks, botanical gardens, and farms • Zoos and Aquariums

  18. Wildlife Management • Laws regulating hunting and fishing • Harvest quotas • Population management plants • Improving habitat • Treaties and laws for migrating species

  19. Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13th Edition Chapter 23 Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College

  20. Land Use in the World Fig. 23-2 p. 595

  21. Land Use in the United States Rangeland and pasture 29% Fig. 23-3 p. 595

  22. Types of US Public Lands • Multiple-use lands: National Forests; National Resource Lands • Moderately-restricted use lands: National Wildlife Refuges • Restricted-use lands: National Park System; National Wilderness Preservation System

  23. US Public Lands Fig. 23-4 p. 596

  24. Managing US Public Land • Biodiversity and ecological function • No subsidies or tax breaks for use • Public should get fair compensation • Users held responsible for actions • Takings and property rights

  25. Managing and Sustaining Forests Ecological Importance of Forests • Food webs and energy flow • Water regulation • Local and regional climate • Numerous habitats and niches • Air purification

  26. Managing and Sustaining Forests Economic Importance of Forests • Fuelwood (50% of global forest use) • Industrial timber and lumber • Pulp and paper • Medicines • Mineral extraction and recreation

  27. Forest Structure Fig. 23-9 p. 601

  28. Types of Forests • Old-growth (frontier) forests • Second-growth forests • Tree farms/plantation Fig. 23-18 p. 609

  29. Forest Management • Rotation cycle • Even-aged management • Industrial forestry • Uneven-aged management • Improved diversity • Sustainable production • Multiple-use

  30. Management Strategies Fig. 23-11 p. 601 Fig. 23-12 p. 602

  31. Logging Roads • Increased erosion and runoff • Habitat fragmentation • Pathways for exotic species • Accessibility to humans Fig. 23-13 p. 602

  32. Harvesting Trees • Selective cutting • High-grading • Shelterwood cutting • Seed-tree cutting • Clearcutting • Strip cutting Fig. 23-14 p. 603

  33. Sustainable Forestry • Longer rotations • Selective or strip cutting • Minimize fragmentation • Improved road building techniques • Certified sustainable grown(See Solutions p. 598)

  34. Pathogens Fungal Diseases • Chestnut blight • Dutch elm disease Insect Pests • Bark beetles • Gypsy moth

  35. Fire Fig. 23-17 p. 607 • Surface fires • Crown fires

  36. Forest Resources and Management in the United States • Habitat for threatened and endangered species • Water purification services • Recreation • 3% of timber harvest • Sustainable yield and multiple use • Substitutes for tree products

  37. Tropical Deforestation • Rapid and increasing • Loss of biodiversity • Cultural extinction • Unsustainable agriculture and ranching • Clearing for cash crop plantations • Commercial logging • Fuelwood

  38. Degradation of Tropical Forests Fig. 23-22 p. 615

  39. Reducing Tropical Deforestation • Identification of critical ecosystems • Reducing poverty and population growth • Sustainable tropical agriculture • Encourage protection of large tracts • Debt-for-nature swaps • Less destructive harvesting methods

  40. The Fuelwood Crisis • Planting fast-growing fuelwood plants • Burning wood more efficiently • Switching to other fuels Fig. 23-25 p. 618

  41. Managing and Sustaining National Parks • Most parks are too small to maintain biodiversity • Invasion by exotic species • Popularity a major problem • Traffic jams and air pollution • Visitor impact (noise) • Natural regulation • Better pay for park staff

  42. Establishing, Designing, and Managing Nature Reserves • Include some moderate disturbance • Sustain natural ecological processes • Protect most important areas • Buffer zones • Gap analysis See Solutions p. 625 • Wilderness areas

  43. Ecological Restoration • Ecological restoration • Restoration ecology • Rehabilitation See Individuals Matter p. 630 • Replacement • Creating artificial ecosystems • Natural restoration

  44. Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13th Edition Chapter 24 Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College

  45. The Importance of Aquatic Biodiversity • Coral reefs • Estuaries • Deep ocean floor • Food items Fig. 24-2 p. 636 • Many chemicals • Medicines and drugs

  46. Human Impacts on Aquatic Biodiversity • Species loss and endangerment • Marine habitat loss and degradation • Freshwater habitat loss and degradation • Overfishing • Nonnative species • Pollution and global warming

  47. Protecting and Sustaining Marine Biodiversity • Protect endangered and threatened species • Establish protected areas • Integrated coastal management • Regulating and preventing ocean pollution • Sustainable management of marine fisheries

  48. Managing and Sustaining the World’s Marine Fisheries • Fishery regulations • Economic approaches • Bycatch reduction • Protected areas See Spotlight p. 650 • Nonnative species • Consumer information • Aquaculture

  49. Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Wetlands Fig. 24-12 p. 653 • Regulations • Mitigation banking • Land use planning • Wetlands restoration • Control of invasive species See Individuals Matter p. 652

  50. Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Lakes Fig. 24-13 p. 655 • Pollution • Invasive species • Water levels • Cultural eutrophication