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The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment

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The Enlightenment

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  1. The Enlightenment

  2. The Enlightenment • Belief in the supremacy of reason over pleasure; conviction that humans could perfect society through the application of the intellect to human affairs • Science takes its place for the first time

  3. The Philosophes • Thinkers who advocated reason • Paris: center of the movement • Search for universal laws in human affairs • Scorned superstition, Christianity: Voltaire • Encyclopedia--All human knowledge: Diderot • Deism: God created universe to operate rationally

  4. Rousseau • Most popular of the Enlightenment • Natural goodness of humans; value of freedom and equality • Respect for humans in nature: Native Am. • Concept of “general will” • Flaws in society and institution cause social injustice

  5. Rococo Style • Softer, more delicate style than Baroque • Rocaille: shell-like decoration used in gardens. • Art as happy, witty, frivolous, playful

  6. The Salons • Social gathering: dining, entertainment, conversation • Wealthy women • Mme. Geoffrin: Rousseau, Diderot • Helped finance Encyclopedia • Discussion of ideas and events

  7. The Art of Rococo • Watteau: Gersaint’s Signboard • Fragonard’s The Swing • Vigee-Lebrun: Self-Portrait with Her Daughter (Friend of Marie-Antoinette)

  8. Mozart and Opera • Independent musician: no patron • Began at age 6. Composed more than 600 works: 20 operas and 41 symphonies • Joseph II of Austria sponsored him • Balance of music and drama in opera • The Marriage of Figaro; Don Giovanni; The Magic Flute

  9. The Bourgeois Response • Figaro based on a French play. • Condemned aristocratic privilege • Middle class gained influence • Art reflected their moral attitudes

  10. The Bourgeois Style in Painting • Greuze: The Bride of the Village • Chardin: Boy Spinning Top • Middle class values

  11. The Rise of the Novel • Epistolary novels • Novels of manners: Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility

  12. The Neoclassical Style • Style of the later eighteenth century that imitated the art of ancient Greece and Rome

  13. Neoclassical Architecture • The Petit Trianon, Versailles • Influence of Palladio • Thomas Jefferson: Ambassador to France • Monticello in Virginia

  14. Neoclassical Painting • Jacques-Louis David: Oath of the Horatii • 1784: Painting embodied leading principles of neoclassicism: didactic purpose, purity of form, and deep passion restrained by good taste. • Revolt against rococo • David involved in French Revolution • Lictors Bearing to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons : Civic duty higher than love

  15. The Classical Symphony • Order, proportion, harmony • Haydn: Symphony--4 movements--sonata form( three-part structure still used today) • Mozart: ability to create effortless transitions between sections and build symmetrical structure for his music

  16. The Age of Satire • Aims to improve society by humorous criticism • Attacks on social ills

  17. Jonathan Swift • A Modest Proposal recommended that poor Irish children be butchered, roasted and served for Sunday dinners. It would reduce population and provide income. • Gulliver’s Travels Horses put humans to shame. Mocked humans as Yahoos • Not convinced of human decency

  18. Satire and Society in Art • Hogarth’s Marriage a la Mode mocks social climbers and marriage for money • Gainsborough: Mr. and Mrs. Andrews: Vanity of England’s aristocrats

  19. Voltaire • Opposed evils of religious bigotry and political oppression • Candide makes fun of optimists • Cultivate your own garden: reject philosophical solutions; cultivate himself, work hard and seek a comfortable and reasonable life.