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Transition to Agriculture

Transition to Agriculture

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Transition to Agriculture

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Transition to Agriculture

  2. Left: Mammoth bone hut, Northern Europe: 20,000 ya. Middle: Paleo-Indian life in Museum of Florida History: 12,000 ya. Bottom: Tool progression from Oldowan to upper palaeolithic. Upper Palaeolithic – Hotbed of Culture • 40 – 10k yBP • Shelters • 15,000 ya Ukraine • Some made with mammoth bones • Wood, leather working; carpentry • Tools • From cores to blades • Specialization • Composite tools • Bow and arrow • Domestication of dogs • Gathering rather than hunting became the mainstay of human economies.

  3. Early H. sapiens Culture • Art • Traces of art found in beads, carvings, and paintings • Cave paintings in Spain and southern France showed a marked degree of skill • Female figurines • 27,000 to 22,000 years B.P. (Western Europe to Siberia) • Called “Venus figurines,” this art depicted women with large breasts and broad hips • Perhaps it was an example of an ideal type, or perhaps an expression of a desire for fertility or abundance. Venus of Willendorf. Discovered in 1908 in Austria and dated to approximately 23,000 years ago.

  4. Archaic H. sapiens Culture • Cave paintings • Mostly animals on bare walls • Subjects were animals favored for their meat and skins • Human figures were rarely drawn due to taboos and fears that it would somehow harm others Cave paintings from 20,000 years ago at Vallon-Pont-d’Arc in southern France (left) and from Lascaux, in southwest France

  5. Domestication of the Dog • The modern dog evolved from the gray wolf. 1st animal to be domesticated. • Oldest fossil dog from 14,000 ya – although DNA suggest much older 15k – 100k. • Because wolves operate in packs, humans easily took the place of the "highest ranking wolf." So the animals quickly learned obedience. • Domestication caused the development of floppy ears, short snouts, spotted coats, highly-set tails and even a tendency to bark.

  6. Social Organization • Hunter-gatherer analogy • Small group, low population density, nomadism, kinship groups important • Migration • North America was the last colonized by modern humans. • Beringia (land bridge) between Russia and Alaska • Asian origin of Native Americans • 30,000 to 12,000 years B.P. was first migration

  7. The Natufians & Pre-Neolithic Culture • The Natufian culture was a pre-neolithic culture that existed in the Eastern Middle East between 12,500 – 10,000 yrs ago. • The were semi-sedentary, before the introduction of full-scale agriculture. • The Natufian communities are possibly the ancestors of the builders of the first Neolithic settlements of the region. • There is no evidence for the deliberate cultivation of cereals, but people at the time certainly made use of wild cereals.

  8. The Neolithic – 10,000 year ago! • The New Stone Age; prehistoric period beginning about 10,000 years ago in which peoples possessed stone-based technologies and depended on domesticated plants and/or animals. • The first agricultural revolution – the transition from hunting & gathering communities & bands. • 7-8 separate locales worldwide with the earliest in the Middle East around 10,000 ya. History of Man. From hunter gatherer to agricultural. Part 1. History of Man. From hunter gatherer to agricultural. Part 2. History of Man. From hunter gatherer to agricultural. Part 3. History of Man. From hunter gatherer to agricultural. Part 4.

  9. The First Farmers • Domestication of plants and animals for food occurred, independently, in Old World and the Americas around 10,000 years ago

  10. Domesticates in the Archaeological Record

  11. Animal Domestication - Regional • Southwest Asia: This area probably included some of the first domesticated dogs, sheep, goats and pigs. • CentralAsia: People raised chicken and used Bactrian camels for carrying loads in Central Asia. • Arabia: As the name implies, the Arabian camel (a one-humped camel, also known as a dromedary) originated here. • China: China was home to early domestication of the water buffalo, pigs and dogs. • Ukraine: People in the area that is now Ukraine domesticated the wild tarpan horses that historians believe are the ancestors of modern horses. • Egypt: The donkey came in handy here, as it can work hard without much water and vegetation. • South America: The domesticated llama and alpaca came from this continent. Historians believe South Americans saved these species from the brink of extinction with domestication.

  12. Social Evolution

  13. Costs & Benefits of Farming