Left: Mammoth bone hut, Northern Europe: 20,000 ya. Middle: Paleo-Indian life in Museum of Florida History: 12,000 ya. Bottom: Tool progression from Oldowan to upper palaeolithic. Upper Palaeolithic – Hotbed of Culture • 40 – 10k yBP • Shelters • 15,000 ya Ukraine • Some made with mammoth bones • Wood, leather working; carpentry • Tools • From cores to blades • Specialization • Composite tools • Bow and arrow • Domestication of dogs • Gathering rather than hunting became the mainstay of human economies.
Early H. sapiens Culture • Art • Traces of art found in beads, carvings, and paintings • Cave paintings in Spain and southern France showed a marked degree of skill • Female figurines • 27,000 to 22,000 years B.P. (Western Europe to Siberia) • Called “Venus figurines,” this art depicted women with large breasts and broad hips • Perhaps it was an example of an ideal type, or perhaps an expression of a desire for fertility or abundance. Venus of Willendorf. Discovered in 1908 in Austria and dated to approximately 23,000 years ago.
Archaic H. sapiens Culture • Cave paintings • Mostly animals on bare walls • Subjects were animals favored for their meat and skins • Human figures were rarely drawn due to taboos and fears that it would somehow harm others Cave paintings from 20,000 years ago at Vallon-Pont-d’Arc in southern France (left) and from Lascaux, in southwest France http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oSHKqX8_pqU&feature=related
Domestication of the Dog • The modern dog evolved from the gray wolf. 1st animal to be domesticated. • Oldest fossil dog from 14,000 ya – although DNA suggest much older 15k – 100k. • Because wolves operate in packs, humans easily took the place of the "highest ranking wolf." So the animals quickly learned obedience. • Domestication caused the development of floppy ears, short snouts, spotted coats, highly-set tails and even a tendency to bark.
Social Organization • Hunter-gatherer analogy • Small group, low population density, nomadism, kinship groups important • Migration • North America was the last colonized by modern humans. • Beringia (land bridge) between Russia and Alaska • Asian origin of Native Americans • 30,000 to 12,000 years B.P. was first migration
The Natufians & Pre-Neolithic Culture • The Natufian culture was a pre-neolithic culture that existed in the Eastern Middle East between 12,500 – 10,000 yrs ago. • The were semi-sedentary, before the introduction of full-scale agriculture. • The Natufian communities are possibly the ancestors of the builders of the first Neolithic settlements of the region. • There is no evidence for the deliberate cultivation of cereals, but people at the time certainly made use of wild cereals.
The Neolithic – 10,000 year ago! • The New Stone Age; prehistoric period beginning about 10,000 years ago in which peoples possessed stone-based technologies and depended on domesticated plants and/or animals. • The first agricultural revolution – the transition from hunting & gathering communities & bands. • 7-8 separate locales worldwide with the earliest in the Middle East around 10,000 ya. History of Man. From hunter gatherer to agricultural. Part 1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YdYH8m6HOCo&feature=related History of Man. From hunter gatherer to agricultural. Part 2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pRsrhhjDSQM&feature=related History of Man. From hunter gatherer to agricultural. Part 3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Ft5SiS5Cz0&feature=related History of Man. From hunter gatherer to agricultural. Part 4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0dOOARz_Mk&feature=related
The First Farmers • Domestication of plants and animals for food occurred, independently, in Old World and the Americas around 10,000 years ago
Animal Domestication - Regional • Southwest Asia: This area probably included some of the first domesticated dogs, sheep, goats and pigs. • CentralAsia: People raised chicken and used Bactrian camels for carrying loads in Central Asia. • Arabia: As the name implies, the Arabian camel (a one-humped camel, also known as a dromedary) originated here. • China: China was home to early domestication of the water buffalo, pigs and dogs. • Ukraine: People in the area that is now Ukraine domesticated the wild tarpan horses that historians believe are the ancestors of modern horses. • Egypt: The donkey came in handy here, as it can work hard without much water and vegetation. • South America: The domesticated llama and alpaca came from this continent. Historians believe South Americans saved these species from the brink of extinction with domestication.