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Research paper proposal due next Thursday View video 005202 Part 1 : The Movies Begin: The Great Train Robbery, Sac State Library, write brief descriptions of the films, technologies, techniques and turn it in to me for credit. You have two weeks to see this video and turn in your notes. Quiz
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Research paper proposal due next Thursday View video 005202 Part 1 : The Movies Begin:The Great Train Robbery, Sac State Library, write brief descriptions of the films, technologies, techniques and turn it in to me for credit. You have two weeks to see this video and turn in your notes.
Quiz 30 minutes total 2 questions: 15 minutes each Please put everything away. Take out paper and pen. Write your name, date, and “Art and Photography” on top of your paper.
Identify this photograph from the previous lecture: 1) full name and nationality of photographer, 2) title of photograph, 3) date, 4) medium, and 5) photographic movement if relevant. Discuss the photograph in terms of the Trachtenberg reading and previous class lecture. Show what you have learned – give as many facts as you can. Include titles of related works by this and other photographers. How did the public see and respond to works like this? Why?
Identify this photograph from the previous lecture: 1) full name and nationality of photographer, 2) title of photograph, 3) date, 4) medium, and 5) photographic movement if relevant. Discuss the photograph in terms of the essay by this photographer, other readings, and class lecture. Display what you have learned – give as many facts as you can. Mention related readings. Include titles of related works by this and other artists. How did the public see and respond to works like this? Why?
19th Century Portraiture “In the summer of 1861 it was stated that 33,000 people made their living from the production of photographs and photographic materials in Paris alone.” Gersheim quoted by Max Kozloff “Nadar and the Republic of Mind”
André-Adolphe Disdéri (French, 1819-1890), uncut sheet of Cartes-de-Visite, albumen contact print from a wet-plate negative, c.1855-1870 shot in Disderi's Paris studio. Unknown sitter Disdéri, multiple shot camera, consecutively released shutters A Carte-de-visite was a tiny photographic image mounted on a 2.5 x 4 inch visiting card.
André-Adolphe Disdéri, Napoleon III, Empress Eugenie, and son, Eugène Napoleon, albumen print, with carte-de-visite, c.1860, 3 3/8 in. x 2 in. Disderi was Napoleon’s court photographer beginning in May, 1859 when Napoleon III interrupted his march to war to pose for a photograph in Disderi’s studio.
André Disdéri, Paul Legrand (clown in white face), uncut cartes de visite sheet, c.1860-65, albumen print Disderi, H.R. H Princess Beatrice, Daughter of Queen Victoria, carte-de-visite, c.1860
Disdéri, Paris Commune Destruction, 1871 Disdéri, Napoleon III Empress Eugénie, and Prince Eugène, c.1860 Disdéri, Bodies of Dead Communards, 1871
Nadar (Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, French, 1820 –1910) Self-Portrait, 1855. Left & right are from 1863. “Nadar” was derived from his nickname ("tourne a dard") meaning "bitter sting," which he earned for his caricatures
Nadar & Adrien Tournachon, Pierrot the Photographer, 1854-55, paper print
Honoré Daunier, Nadar Elevating Photography to the Level of Art, lithograph, 1862, appeared in Le Boulevard (Parisian newspaper). Edouard Manet, The 1867 World Exhibition, Nadar’s balloon, The Giant, is upper right James Black Boston from a captive balloon, October 13, 1860 Nadar created the first aerial views of cities but first works were lost.
Nadar, Catacombs of Paris, 1861First to photograph with artificial light (Bunsen batteries)
Nadar, Sewers of Paris, 1864-65
The theory of photography can be taught in an hour; the first ideas of how to go about it in a day. What can't be taught... is the feeling for light - the artistic appreciation of effects produced by different...sources; it's the understanding of this or that effect following the lines of the features which required your artistic perception. What is taught even less, is the immediate understanding of your subject - it's this immediate contact which can put you in sympathy with the sitter, helps you to sum them up, follow their normal attitudes, their ideas, according to their personality, and enables you to make not just a chancy, dreary cardboard copy typical of the merest hack in the darkroom, but a likeness of the most intimate and happy kind.... Nadar (1857) Nadar, Young Woman, 1859
First Impressionist Exhibition 15 April 1874: “Exhibition of the Société Anonyme of Painters, Sculptors, and Printmakers”(left) Nadar (Gaspard-Felix Tournachon) (1820-1910) Nadar¹s Studio at 35 Boulevard des Capucines’(right) Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873 (31 1/4 x 23 1/4")
Nadar, Gerard de Nerval, 1854-56 This mystic and dreamy poet, reader of Swedenborg and the Cabala, a confirmed eccentric and finally a mad suicide …. Nadar shows us a small, round, bald- headed plebian, seemingly a lumpfaced butcher…. Max Kozloff
Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt, 1863
Nadar, Georges Sand, 1877
Lady Clementina Hawarden (British, 1822-65). Isabella Grace and Clementina Maude (daughters) in 5 Princes Garden, from Studies from Life, Albumen print from wet collodion on glass negative. England, 1864. Allegory
Lady Clementina Hawarden, Clementina Looking into a Large Mirror, albumen print from wet collodion negative, c.1864James McNeil Whistler, Symphony in White, 1864. Whistler admired and collected Hawarden’s photographs
Hawarden, Girl at the Window, early 1860sImpressionist light effect. Yet the combination of simple pose and an overt appeal to the imagination is also characteristic of Pre-Raphaelism. Rossetti's drawings of Elizabeth Siddal are an obvious example. Rossetti, Elizabeth Siddal Kneeling, Playing a Double Pipe, pencil on paper, 1854
JULIA MARGARET CAMERON (British, b. India 1815 – 1879) Cameron’s Dimbola Lodge on the Isle of Wight George Frederic Watts Julia Margaret Cameron 1850-1852, oil on canvas, Cameron, Alfred Lord Tennyson, 1865, one of Cameron’s famous artist neighbors on the Isle of Wight
Cameron, Annie, My First Success, 1865Cameron was fifty years old The habit of running into the dining room with my wet pictures has stained such an immense quantity of table linen with nitrate of silver, indelible stains, that I should have been banished from any less indulgent household. J.M. Cameron “Annals of My Glass House, 1874
Cameron’s collodion process With the model ready, Cameron inserted a large, wet glass plate into her wooden camera, which was equipped with a heavy brass lens. Though briefer than daguerreotype exposure times, she exposed her plates to light for three to eight minutes – too long for any model to hold completely still. Cameron's lens did not cover the large size of her glass plate negatives (about 11x14”), making it impossible to keep the entire image in focus. Resulting prints were printed directly from the negative. Not enlarged. Cameron, Julia Jackson, 1867, albumen print
Although Cameron’s exposures averaged about five minutes, she did not use a headrest, instead allowing the sitter’s natural motion to add spiritual life to the picture. The idea that the blur could be used as a strategy was a conceptual break from the portrait ideal in which a sitter was rendered absolutely still.
Julia Margaret Cameron, My Favorite Picture of All My Works, My Niece Julia, 1867 “My first successes in my out-of-focus pictures were a fluke.. . When focusing and coming to something which, to my eye, was very beautiful, I stopped there instead of screwing on the lens to the more definite focus.” J.M. Cameron
Cameron,Mrs. Herbert Duckworth (niece Julia Jackson, mother of Virginia Wolfe and Vanessa Bell) 2 of many portraits, 1865-1868, albumen print
The issue of focus was critical in defining serious nineteenth-century artistic practice. During the 1860’s Cameron’s work helped establish the issue of selective focus as a criterion of artistic practice. The making of “out of focus” photographs was considered an expressive remedy that shifted the artificial, machine-focus of a camera towards a more natural vision.
Cameron, Sir John Herschel 1867, albumen print When I have such men before my camera my whole soul has endeavored to do its duty towards them in recording faithfully the greatness of the inner as well as the features of the outer man. The photograph thus taken has been almost the embodiment of a prayer. J.M Cameron
Cameron, Henry Taylor as Rembrandt, 1865, carbon printRembrandt van Rijn, Self-portrait, 1658, oil on canvas. Compare lighting and seriousness of pose
Julia Margaret Cameron, Mariana, "She said I am aweary, aweary, I would that I were dead,” 1875 (last line of every stanza inTennyson’s poem, Mariana) Compare: William Morris (British, 1834-1896) La Belle Iseult, 1858 Pre-Raphaelite anti-modernity modernism
Compare Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #21, 1978 Cameron, TheEcho, 1867, playacting in costume for the camera
King Arthur, from Idylls of the King and Other Poems by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, volume I, plate XII, 1874, albumen, 25.7 x 35.3 cm. The model is William Warder, a local porter at the Yarmouth ferry pier
Julia Margaret Cameron, Days at Freshwater c.1870, albumen print Compare Sally Mann (American, b. 1951) wet plate process
Julia Margaret Cameron, Mary Mother (Cameron’s parlor maid, Mary Hillier) 1867 albumen print Compare: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Beata Beatrix, c.1864-70, oil on canvas Pre-Raphaelite (British)
Cameron, Mary Hillier as Madonna, 2 images in series, c. 1865, albumen silver photographs, 15.6 x 20.0 cmRaphael, Madonna della Seggiolo, c. 1512, oil on canvas, inspiration for madonna series Detail of Raphael’s Sistine Madonna, 1512 Hiller’s children as putti
My aspirations are to ennoble Photography and to secure for it the character and uses of High Art by combining the real and ideal and sacrificing nothing of the Truth by all possible devotion to Poetry and beauty. I believe in other than mere conventional topographic photography - map making and skeleton rendering of feature and form without that roundness and fullness of face and feature, that modeling of flesh and limb, which the focus I use only can give. As to spots they must I think remain. I could have them touched out but ... Artists for this reason amongst others value my photographs. Julia Margaret Cameron
Cameron, Alice Liddell, n.d.,albumen print Lewis Carroll’s Wonderland Alice
Lewis Carroll(b. Charles Dodgson, British,1832-1898),Alice, 1858, collodion Lewis Carroll on J. M Cameron:"In the evening Mrs. Cameron and I had a mutual exhibition of photographs. Hers are all taken purposely out of focus - some are very picturesque - some merely hideous - however, she talks of them as if they were triumphs of art." Last page of original Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland manuscript, published 1865
Compare Lewis Carroll, Alice, 1858, with (right) Sally Mann, Nap Time, 1989, gelatin silver print
Lewis Carroll (b. Charles Dodgson, British,1832-1898), Irene MacDonald, 1863, albumen silver print, 5 5/8 x 71/2 in
Unknown Photographer, The Ghost of Milton, 3 1/2 x 7 in., Albumen silver stereograph, c. 1860Spirit photography began in the US and spread to Europe
(left) Édouard Isidore Buguet (French, b. 1840), Fluidic Effect, 1875 (right) Theodor Prinz (German, active early 1900s) Ghost, c.1900, Gelatin silver print