Technology • Caravels • Lateen Sails • Astrolabe improvements • Compass
Portuguese • Colonize the east primarily • Also the Canaries and Madeiras • Sugarcane – plantation economy • African Slave Trade • Later taken over by the Spanish
Three Commonalities Between All Nations • Mercantilism (see map) • Intra-colonial trading system • The Columbian Exchange • Disease killed 90% • African Slave Trade (see map)
Christopher Columbus – (1492 – 1504) • Thought world was smaller than most believed – He was wrong • Queen Isabella supported him • Took four voyages • Reason to believe he knew he reached the new world
Hernan Cortes & Francisco Pizarro Conquers Aztecs – 1521 Established estates in New World Dies a wealthy man Conquers Incas - 1532 How was Cortes able to conquer so many with so few?
Economics of Spanish Colonies • Established plantations on W. Indian islands • Silver & gold mines of Central and South America • Both required manual labor
Pirates • Spanish transported lots of wealth • Opened the door to privateers and eventually pirates • Channel between Florida and the Bahamas was the best place to go after Spanish merchant ships • Spanish founded St. Augustine – 1565 • Oldest city in US
Labor System - Encomienda • Encomienda - The expedition commander would give trusteeship over parcels of land and that land’s inhabitants to his conquistadores. • Encomiendero collected taxes from natives and force them to work • Encomiendero would provide protection and Catholicism to the natives. • Used on mainland
African Slavery • Used primarily on the islands of the Caribbean • Sugar, coffee, tobacco plantations • Native had died from disease
Colonial Government under Crown Control • Conquistador autonomy concerned the Spanish crown • Created two provinces: • In Mexico - New Spain, • In Peru - New Castile • Each governed by a viceroy. Voice of the king • All important decisions on colonial management came from Spain.
Caste System • Peninsulars • Creoles • Mestizo • Mulattoes
Bartolome de las Casas • Catholic Priest • Came to the Americas shortly after Columbus • Critic of the American conquest & encomienda system • Fought to preserve rights of Native Americans
DeSoto & Coronado • De Soto – unleashed violence through SE and Florida • Coronado – Unleashed violence through the Great Plains • The City of Cibola
Spanish in North America • Why did they not conquer periphery Indians (North America)?
New Mexico Colony • Santa Fe (1608) was founded as a religious colony • In the sticks • Little respect for Natives • Pueblo Indians were willing to add Christian beliefs
Pope’s Rebellion - 1680 • Pueblo Indians resent the Spanish • infringing on Pueblo culture • Disrespectful • Making natives second class citizens • Pueblos attack New Mexico settlements • Kill priests & settlers • Burned settlements • Set Spanish back in that area
Fall of the Spanish colonial Empire • Defeat of the Armada 1588 • Centralized Control • Increase in wealth caused inflation • Exploitation colony • Conversion efforts drew focus away from economic gains.