Multimedia EDC 544 Fall 2000
Definition of Multimedia “Multimedia is defined as an interactive computer-mediated presentation that includes at least two of the following elements: text, sound, still graphic images, motion graphics, and animation” (Tannenbaum, 1998, p. 4). For definitions of multimedia terms, see “The Multimedia Alphabet Soup”
Origins of Multimedia • Communicative Elements • Storytelling, Theater, and Dance • Basic forms of human communication • Ways in which people have learned to present a story or a message to an audience • Combining Music and Drama • Songs as communication • Used as both a direct and symbolic means of communication in songs and in background music to increase the effectiveness of the communication
Origins of Multimedia - con’t • Pictorial Representations of Reality and Imagination • Images, Special Effects, and Symbolism • Powerful means of communication and the basic medium for a multimedia presentation. • Still and motion pictures are used for their content for both direct communication and, with special effects, to enhance some aspect of the message. • Combining pictures and music can be powerful, however, indirect.
Key Point • There is a need for a symbiotic blending of the various media into a comprehensive whole production. • If the individual elements do not complement each other but rather tend to compete,m the effect will be to diminish rather than to enhance the communication. (Tannenbaum, 1998, p. 35)
Visual Communication • A number of methods for helping to understand the various processes of comprehension of images. • Including works in the form of text incorporated into other visual content or of text alone presented in some visually compelling fashion to achieve a particular effect.Tannenbaum, 1998, p. 69
Media Literacy • An understanding of the way producers of images manipulate images for effect. • There are four aspects of visual literacy viewed as essential in understanding today’s media-oriented society.
Visual Literacy Prerequisites • Visual literacy is one’s familiarity with the visual conventions of light, color, and shifts in perspectives. • Acquired through cumulative exposure to visual media.
Consequences of Visual Literacy • Cognitive skills are used in the interpretation of visual media and are applicable to other intellectual tasks as well.
Awareness of Visual Manipulation • The process of making a viewer more aware of how meaning is created visually, and therefore, less likely to be misled by visual manipulation.
Aesthetic Appreciation • Awareness of the ways in which visual media give rise to meaning and elicit viewers’ responses can also be seen as providing a basis for informed aesthetic appreciation.
Image Perspectives • Personal • A gut reaction to the work based on subjective opinions • Historical • A determination of the importance of the work based on the medium’s time line. • Technical • The relationship between light, the recording medium used to produce the work, and the presentation of the work.
Ethical • The moral and ethical responsibilities that the producer, the subject, and the viewer have to the work. • Cultural • An analysis of the symbols used in the work that convey meaning within a particular society at a particular time. • Critical • The issues that transcend a particular image and shape a reasoned reaction.Tannenbaum, 1998, p. 72
Still Images • Concrete • Abstract
Components of Form • Dots • Lines
Basic Shapes • Parallelogram • Circle • Triangle
Illusions of Depth • The following factors, used singly or in combination, give viewers of images a sense of depth: • Space • Size • Color • Lighting • Textural gradients • Interposition • Time • Perspective
Images in Motion • Real Movement • Apparent Movement • Graphic Movement • Implied Movement
Typefaces • Serif • Sans serif
Categories of Sound • Music • Speech • Other sounds
Sound Production • Generation • Propogation • Reception
Listening and Auditory Communication • Reception of Sound • Perception fo Pitch • Measuremetn of Sound • Perception of Sound
Conceptual Framework of Constancy in Perception • Prototype or template solution • feature or attribute solution • higher-order variable solution • innate systems approach
Input/Output Devices • “A multimedia computer system is only as good as its input and output (I/O) devices, because the essential element of the multimedia is interactivity with the human user.” (Tannenbaum, 1998, p. 127)
Output Devices • Monitors tor text and graphics, both still and motion, • Speakers and MIDI interfaces for sound, • Specialized helmets and immersive displays for virtual reality
Input Devices • Keyboards and optical character recognition (OCR) for text, • Digital cameras, scanners, and CD-ROMs, which may be supplanted by DVDs within a few years, for graphics, • MIDI keyboards, CD-ROMs, and microphones for sound, • Video cameras, CD-ROMs, and frame grabbers for video, • Mice, track balls, joy sticks, virtual reality gloves and wands, and so on, for spatial data, • Modem and network interfaces for networked data.
Types of Images • A real image is a portion of what is physically present in nature - either an image that has already been recorded on some medium such as paper or film, or a part of physical reality such as someone’s face or a room full of people or furniture.
Multimedia Design Process • Written as a tutorial for faculty, this web site gives a very good explanation of the design process and it’s four major components of • Definition, Architecture, Design, and Implementation • The Design Cycle: What to Expect When Expecting Multimedia
Integrating Technology into Instruction • For the full text of this article click above. • For a walk through the steps outlined in the article, continue through this presentation. • If you would like to see a bit more information, embedded links have been provided for that purpose.
Step One • Planning • Objective: To define the current knowledge base and to develop the foundation for the organization of learning • Tools: Inspiration Concept Mapping Software • More on planning
More on Planning • The planning stage is the first stage, and is often the most critical. This is the point where the instructor has to provide a “hook” that will create interest in the learner to continue with the process over the months to come. The theme may be to develop a structure to colonize Mars with inhabitants of Earth. Often, the instructor can set the hook by posing an open-ended question that frames the contextof the subject matter to be studied.
Step Two • Research • Objective: To allow the learner to explore the content area and to deepen their knowledge base • Tools: Browsers for the Internet (Netscape, Internet Explorer for Windows or Mac), e-mail • More on Research • A Bit More on Research • Final Words on Research
More on Research • The research stage follows the planning stage so that learners can explore the knowledge base and deepen it through independent or cooperative research activities. This includes searching on the Internet for useful sources of information, but also for sharing these resources in discussion formats. The skills of the library media specialist are critical to this phase, as strategies for information acquisition and evaluation are vital to research.
A Bit More on Research • As the primary tools of the Internet, browsers (such as Netscape and Internet Explorer) and e-mail can be very useful at this point for research. With the browsers, many features can be shown and taught as a precursor to each individual research session, such as making bookmarks, clearing the cache, and setting the colors for fonts and links. The use of e-mail is vital in today’s research and is a nice complement to using Web sites for information, since it personalizes the exchange of information gathering.
Final Words on Research • This may lead the learner back to the planning stage to deepen and broaden the knowledge base, since the research will allow for greater content to be added to the concept maps and research-driving questions. Often when learners have little practical understanding of a subject area, their research will only drive them to understand how little they actually know about the topic. It may also reinforce the fact that they know a lot about the area of study. At this point, the instructor can facilitate sharing using concept maps and information gathered from Web sites and e-mail. The learners can share this information and drive to a deeper collective understanding.
Step Three • Development • Objective: To provide the learner with the opportunity to construct their knowledge following the curriculum materials and scope and sequence of the instruction • Tools: Inspiration, word processors • More on Development • A Final Word on Development
Step Four • Refinement • Objective: To further the development and to lead the learner to the implementation phase • Tools: Inspiration, word processors, WYSIWYG editors, HTML instruction
Step Five • Implementation • Objective: To demonstrate the learning that has taken place through the phases • Tools: Inspiration, word processors, WYSIWYG editors, HTML instruction, FTP, Fetch
More on Development • Now the learner is ready to drive toward putting their ideas into a format that can lead to a demonstration of the learning. Inspiration will be a valuable tool to revisit in this stage, as learners can map their ideas, rearrange them, and create an outline from the concept map that can be used to write up their plan. • The word-processing software can be introduced at this time, yet this may be the one tool with which learners have the most experience. Now, the technology tools are framed in another context for learning and can be integrated for the development phase. Copying the Internet address (URLs) in the browser and pasting into the document is one example of this type of integration.
A Final Word on Development • Also, information from the Internet can be synthesized into a document that can become the research base for the final product. Of course, plagiarism should be discussed and avoided, and this is best accomplished by requiring a unique student task that will frame the research. • To foster critical thinking is to put forth unique situations for students to study and to reinforce their ideas with citations of factual information found in research. It should foster analysis, evaluation, and synthesis of information, all higher-order thinking skills.
Various Types of Multimedia to Consider • The following are links are from Web Week and provide information regarding • Design Considerations • Adobe’s Photoshop • Macromedia’s Shockwave • Real Audio • From Alberta Canada: • Power Point: A Simple Tutorial
Power Point on the Web • See the following for tips and tutorials regarding Power Point
How to Select Links for Multimedia Integration • What purpose does the link you are interested serve? This article explores the concepts of links as means of knowledge acquisition, affective connections, concept attainment, or evoking critical thinking: • Link Like You Mean It! Selecting Web Sites to Support Intentional Learning Outcomes (March, T., 2000, MultiMedia Schools)