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Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning

Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning

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Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning

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    Slide 1:Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning Third Edition

    Chapter Eight ERP and Electronic Commerce

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 2

    Slide 2:Objectives

    After completing this chapter, you will be able to: Describe business-to-business e-commerce Explain the importance of ERP to the success of a company engaged in e-commerce Describe the function of an application service provider (ASP) Describe the delivery of ERP services through an ASP Describe Web services and SAPís NetWeaver Describe the unique components of NetWeaver Explain why accessing an ERP system through a Web browser is efficient Define XML and its significance to ERP Define RFID and its future role in logistics and sales

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 3

    Slide 3:Introduction

    Effectively competing in high-volume e-commerce may be impossible without the infrastructure provided by Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Companies can integrate ERP systems with the Internet and ďrentĒ ERP software from special-purpose software companies NetWeaver: SAPís Web services platform XML is becoming the new markup language of the Internet Use of radio frequency identification (RFID) devices in managing movement of goods in the supply chain

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 4

    Slide 4:Electronic Commerce Background

    Today most companies conduct at least part of their business operations through electronic commerce (e-commerce) E-commerce: conduct of business over the Internet Most of the business growth on the Internet has been in the area of business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce Business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 5

    Slide 5:Business-to-Business E-Commerce

    Buying and selling between two companies over the Internet Companies might be manufacturers, suppliers, wholesalers, or retailers Transforming the way companies work with each other Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Electronic computer-to-computer transfer of standard business documents Been used by companies since the 1960s Value-added network (VAN): intermediary Internet-based network run by an outside EDI service provider

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 6

    Slide 6:Business-to-Business E-Commerce (contíd.)

    Electronic data interchange (EDI) (contíd.) Benefits of EDI: Costs of paper, printing, and postage have almost disappeared Errors have been minimized Ordering is fast and efficient Suppliers and buyers are ďlockedĒ into business relationships

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 7

    Slide 7:Business-to-Business E-Commerce (contíd.)

    Internet-based procurement Use of Internet technologies for procurement activities Benefits: Less expensive to use the Internet than private EDI networks Purchasing costs further reduced as suppliers compete for orders on buyerís Web site

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 8

    Slide 8:Business-to-Business E-Commerce (contíd.)

    Internet-based procurement (contíd.) Electronic marketplace: gathering place for buyers and sellers on the Internet Exchanges: one type of B2B electronic marketplace Typically, the focus is on a single industry Private exchange One type of industry marketplace Membership is restricted to select participants

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 9

    Slide 9:Business-to-Business E-Commerce (contíd.)

    Internet auctions and reverse auctions B2B e-commerce allows companies to do online bidding through auctions and reverse auctions Reverse auctions: one buyer and many sellers Internet-based auctions are changing the way in which commodities are purchased Internet has replaced the intermediary Pricing is open and dynamic

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 10

    Slide 10:Business-to-Business E-Commerce (contíd.)

    Electronic commerce security Security is a major concern with e-commerce Denial of service (DoS) attacks Attackers block access to a Web-based service through a variety of means, including bombarding a site with so many messages that the site cannot handle the volume Measures used by companies to protect their networks, Web sites, and privacy of customer data Virus-scanning software, encryption, intrusion detection, etc.

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 11

    Slide 11:E-Commerce and ERP

    Each technology complements the other, and each is necessary for success Back-office processing Efficient back-office operation is crucial for any companyís success E-commerce often exacerbates problems and reveals weaknesses in current back-office systems Integrating Internet front-office operation and ERP back-office operation is fundamental in todayís business environment

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 12

    Slide 12:Fitter Snacker and E-Commerce

    Currently, Fitter Snacker has neither a Web-based ordering system nor an ERP system FS executives looking at two IS investment options: Implement a Web-based ordering system, or Implement an ERP package If Web-based ordering system implemented without implementing an ERP package: FSís unintegrated information system would not be able to handle the additional Internet orders An attractive Web site does not provide enough benefit on its own for an e-commerce business to stay afloat Conventional back-office systems must be in place and operating correctly for the business to flourish

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 13

    Slide 13:Using ERP through an Application Service Provider

    Many companies today outsource some of their operations to an outside service provider Outside service provider sometimes called a third party Outsourcing can simplify management of ERP systems

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 14

    Slide 14:Application Service Providers

    Application service provider (ASP): company that provides management of applications for a company over a network Network is usually the Internet ASP owns the hardware and rights to the software ASP employs workers who run outsourced applications Users of the system are the companyís employees

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 15 Figure 8-1 ERP responsibilities in-house versus with an ASP Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 16

    Slide 16:Application Service Providers (contíd.)

    Advantages of using an ASP Affordability Shorter implementation time Expertise Disadvantages of using an ASP Security Bandwidth/response time Flexibility No frills Technical, not business focus

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 17

    Slide 17:Application Service Providers (contíd.)

    Other considerations Companies should carefully scrutinize the ASPís contract before signing it to uncover: Hidden costs Other potential problems SAP is offering an ASP version of its ERP product for midsized companies Business ByDesign: delivered to customers over the Web

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 18

    Slide 18:NetWeaver

    Web services: combination of software tools that lets various programs within an organization communicate with other applications Also known as SOA, or service-oriented architecture Benefit of adopting SOA Ability to add new applications quickly Implementing SOA is not easy Return on an SOA investment is often difficult to determine

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 19

    Slide 19:NetWeaver Tools and Capabilities

    SAPís NetWeaver: collection of components that support business transactions over the Internet Modules included: Enterprise Portal, Mobile Infrastructure, Business Intelligence, Master Data Management, and Exchange Infrastructure Enterprise Portal mySAP.com Gives users complete access, or a portal, to all their work on a single screen, using links to all major aspects of their jobs

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 20

    Slide 20:NetWeaver Tools and Capabilities (contíd.)

    Mobile Infrastructure Allows users to access and work with data through mobile devices such as PDAs, cell phones, and pagers Business Intelligence (BI) Incorporates a data warehouse and data mining tools Can be delivered in a personalized manner with Enterprise Portal

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 21

    Slide 21:NetWeaver Tools and Capabilities (contíd.)

    Master Data Management Provides data consistency within a companyís SAP system Exchange Infrastructure Allows different applications to share data Companies donít have to write code to enable different applications to transmit data

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 22

    Slide 22:NetWeaver at Work for Fitter Snacker

    Amy Sanchez: salesperson, works from home She logs on to SAP system with her laptop computer, using the SAP GUI Donald Brown: salesperson, deals with distributors Tester for new NetWeaver SAP server Every day logs on to his Enterprise Portal Also uses SAPís Mobile Infrastructure and Business Intelligence modules

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 23

    Slide 23:Duet

    Microsoft and SAP have been working on Duet Intended to let companies access SAP data and processes using the familiar Microsoft Office interface Goal of Duet Expand and simplify adoption of SAP ERP by making workers more efficient Duet has numerous advantages

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 24

    Slide 24:Duet Challenges

    Duet brings its own challenges Companies must be using a relatively current version of SAP ERP Companies must run Microsoft server software May require company to use other SAP products Growing competition between SAP and Microsoft in the ERP software market

    Slide 25:Duet Architecture

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 25

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 26

    Slide 26:Accessing ERP Systems over the Internet

    ERP vendors now offer access to their systems through a Web browser Web browsers such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator Users and systems administrators find it much more efficient to access ERP systems through the browser Avoids the time-consuming installation of the standard ERP GUI

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 27

    Slide 27:XML

    Extensible Markup Language (XML) New programming language of the Internet Uses tags that define the data contained within them XML-coded data can go directly from a Web page into a database Data does not have to pass through middleware or be rekeyed into the system Internet pages written in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) HTML specifies only how your information will look when viewed through a browser XML users can create their own tags Customized tags in the document describe, or define, the data

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 28

    Slide 28:XML Example

    Figure 8-5 Fitter Snacker document in XML

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 29

    Slide 29:XML (contíd.)

    ERP systems now accept data in XML format Using XML, companies can transfer data from their Web sites directly into their ERP systems Streamlines data entry, reduces errors, and reduces server loads XML is very attractive to smaller companies Small companies often transfer data over telephone lines or using fax machines Using XML makes electronic data transfer much more affordable

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 30

    Slide 30:Radio Frequency Identification Technology

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology Becoming an efficient way of tracking items through a supply chain RFID device: small package, or tag, that includes a microprocessor and an antenna and can be attached to products RFID technology has become inexpensive enough to be cost-effective Wal-Mart is in the process of implementing an RFID system for its supply chain

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 31

    Slide 31:Radio Frequency Identification Technology (contíd.)

    Pharmaceutical firms working toward adopting RFID technology To comply with upcoming FDA regulations that would require track-and-trace technology on all drug packages to prevent counterfeiting Procter & Gamble is using RFID technology to collect information about the sales of its products SAPís ERP software is RFID-ready Through NetWeaver, SAP can integrate RFID data into both SAP and non-SAP applications

    Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition 32

    Slide 32:Summary

    E-commerce is transforming the way companies do business Business-to-business e-commerce is changing the way companies buy and sell goods ERP is an essential component for all forms of e-commerce Application service providers (ASPs) are allowing companies to use ERP without a large initial investment Web services, or service-oriented architecture, offers a combination of software tools that lets various programs within an organization communicate with other applications SAPís Web services platform is NetWeaver Users of ERP systems often access those systems through a Web browser XML, or Extensible Markup Language, defines data on a Web page RFID devices, or radio frequency identification devices, are used in tracking items in transit