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Data Structures

Data Structures

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Data Structures

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  1. Data Structures Chapter 12

  2. Chapter Contents Chapter Objectives 12.1 Introductory Example: Counting Internet Addresses 12.2 The ArrayListand LinkedList Classes 12.3 Example: A Stack Application and Class 12.4 Example: A Queue Class 12.5 An Introduction to Trees Part of the Picture: Data Structures 12.6 Graphical/Internet Java: A PolygonSketcher Class

  3. Chapter Objectives • Study the Java collection classes, ArrayList and LinkedList • Show how to build collection classes • Study the stack and queue structures • Learn about linked structures • linked lists and binary trees • Implement and use linked structures • Discover how collection classes are used in graphical programming

  4. Review Arrays • An array stores a sequence of valuestype [] anArray = new type [ capacity ]; • Drawback: • capacity of array fixed • must know max number of values at compile time • either the program runs out of space or wastes space • Solution: collection classes • capacity can grow and shrink as program runs

  5. 12.1 Introductory Example: Counting Internet Addresses • Internet TCP/IP addresses provide for two names for each computer • A host name, meaningful to humans • an IP address, meaningful to computers • Problem: • network administrator needs to review file of IP addresses using a network gateway • Solution: • read file of addresses • keep track of addresses and how many times each address shows up in the file

  6. Class AddressCounter • Note source code, Figure 12.1 • Attributes • maximum message length • address • count • Methods • constructor • comparison method, equals() • count incrementer • accessors for address, count • to-string converter for output

  7. Class GatewayUsageCounter • Note source code, Figure 12.2 • Purpose • counts IP addresses using an array list • Receives name of text file from args[0] • Action: • reads IP address from file • prints listing of IP addresses and access count for each • Note use of ArrayList class • can grow or shrink as needed

  8. 12.2 The ArrayList and LinkedList Classes • Collection classes provide capability to grow and shrink as needed • Categories of collection classes • Lists: store collection of items, some of which may be the same • Sets: store collection of items with no duplicates • Maps: store collections of pairs, each associates a key with an object • Note List methods, table 12.1

  9. ArrayList Class • Implements the List using an array • by using an Object array, can store any reference type • cannot directly store primitive types • can indirectly store such values by using instances of their wrapper types • Consider the declaration:ArrayList addressSequence = newArrayList(); AddressSeqeunce sizearray 0 

  10. Update size attribute of the ArrayList Allocate the array [0] [1] [2] . . . [m-1] 128.159.4.201 Adding to addressSequence • The commandaddressSequence.add(anAddressCounter); • appends anAddressCounter object to the sequence • The system will then … Make first element point to the AddressCounter AddressSeqeunce sizearray 1 0

  11. Cast it as an AddressCounter object Gets this object Increment the count attribute [0] [1] [2] . . . [m-1] 128.159.4.2011, 1 123.111.222.333, 2 Updating addressSequence • Consider the command((AddressCounter) addressSequence.get(index)).incrementCount();// assume index == 1 AddressSeqeunce sizearray 2 123.111.222.333, 1

  12. 128.159.4.2011, 1 Enlarging the AddressSequence Array • When allocated array is full, adding another element forces replacing array with larger one • new array of n > m allocated • values from old array copied into new array • old array replaced by new one AddressSeqeunce sizearray [0] [1] [2] . . . [n-1] 2 123.111.345.444, 1 123.111.222.333, 1

  13. ArrayList Drawback • Problems arise from using an array • values can be added only at back of ArrayList • to insert a value and "shift" others after it requires extensive copying of values • similarly, deleting a value requires shifting • We need a slightly different structure to allow simple insertions and deletions • the LinkedList class will accomplish this

  14. The LinkedList Class • GivenLinkedList alist = new LinkedList();. . .aList.add(new(integer(88));aList.add(new(integer(77));aList.add(new(integer(66)); aList headsizetail 3 Resulting object shown at left 88 77 66

  15. Attributes: • link to first item in the list • size of the list • link to last item in the list • Nodes: • Contain 3 handles • link to next node • link to previous node • link to stored object • Links to next and previous make it a doubly linked list Linked List Containers aList headsizetail 3 88 77 66

  16. Variations on Linked Lists • Lists can be linked doubly as shown • Lists can also be linked in one direction only • attribute would not need link to tail • node needs forward link and pointer to data only • last item in list has link set to null • Lists can be circularly linked • last node has link to first node

  17. Using a LinkedList • Solve the IP address counter to use LinkedList • Note source code, Figure 12.3 • receives text file via args[0] • reads IP addresses from file • prints listing of distinct IP addresses and number of times found in file

  18. addressSequence headsizetail  0  Using a LinkedList • Given the commandLinkedList addressSequence = new LinkedList(); • Uses the LinkedList constructor to build an empty list

  19. addressSequence headsizetail 0 Adding to the Linked List • Results of command for first addaddressSequence.add(anAddressCounter); • Successive adds • create more nodes and data values • adjust links   123.111.345.444, 1

  20. Accessing Values in a Linked List • Must use the .get method ((AddressCounter) addresssSequence.get(index)).incrementCount(); • A LinkedList has no array with an index to access an element • get method must … • begin at head node • iterate through index nodes to find match • return reference of object in that node • Command then does cast and incrementCount()

  21. get(i)starts at first node, iterates i times to reach desired node sizemethod determines limit of loop counter Accessing Values in a Linked List • To print successive values for the output for (int i = 0; i < addressSequence.size(); i++) System.out.println(addressSequence.get(i)); • Note that each get(i) must pass over the same first i-1 nodes previously accessed • This is inefficient

  22. Accessing Values in a Linked List • An alternative, more efficient access algorithmListIterator it = addressSequence.listIterator();while (it.hasNext()) System.out.println( it.next()); • A ListIterator is an object that iterates across the values in a list • The next() method does the following: • save handle to current node's object • advances iterator to next node using successor attribute • returns handle saved in step 1, so object pointed to can be output

  23. Inserting Nodes Anywhere in a Linked List • Recall problem with ArrayList • can add only at end of the list • linked list has capability to insert nodes anywhere • We can sayaddressSequence.add(n, new anAddressCounter);Which will … • build a new node • update head and tail links if required • update node handle links to place new node to be nth item in the list • allocates memory for the data item

  24. Choosing the Proper ListAlgorithm Efficiency • "Time-efficiency" is not a real-time issue • rather an issue of how many steps an algorithm requires • Linear time • time proportional to n • referred to as O(n), "order n" • Constant time • expressed as O(1)

  25. Demonstration of Efficiency • Note sample program ListTimer, Figure 12.4, demonstrates performance • Observations • appending to either ArrayList or LinkedList structures takes negligible time • far more time-consuming to access middle value in a LinkedList than an ArrayList • far more time consuming to insert values into an ArrayList than a LinkedList

  26. Conclusions on Efficiency • If problem involves many accesses to interior of a sequence • sequence should be stored in an ArrayList • If problems involves many insertions, deletions not at end • sequence should be stored in LinkedList • If neither of these is the case • it doesn't matter which is used

  27. 1 3 7eight 12.3 Example: a Stack Application and Class • Consider an algorithm which converts from a base 10 number system to another number system. • To convert from 95ten to base eight:Use repeateddivision byeight, takingremaindersin reverseorder

  28. Need for a Stack • The remainders are generated in the opposite order that they must be output • If we were able to … • generate them • hold on to them as generated • access (display) them in the reverse order THEN we have used a stack 1 3 1 3 7 7

  29. Stack Container • A stack is maintained Last-In-First-Out(not unlike a stack of plates in a cafeteria) • Standard operations • isEmpty(): returns true or false • top(): returns copy of value at top of stack (without removing it) • push(v): adds a value v at the top of the stack • pop(): removes and returns value at top

  30. Number Base Conversion Algorithm • Create an empty stack to hold numbers • Repeat following while number != 0 • Calculate remainder = number % base • Push remainder onto stack of remainders • Replace number = number / base • Declare result as an empty String • While stack not empty do the following: • Remove remainder from top of stack • Convert remainder to base equivalent • Concatenate base equivalent to result • Return result

  31. Implementing a Stack Class • Note use of Stack class in source code, Figure 12.6, implementation in Figure 12.7 • Implemented with LinkedList attribute variable to store values • this is a "has-a" relationship, the Stack has aLinkedList • contrast the "is-a" relationship

  32. Java's Stack Class • Java has a Stack class which extends the Vector class • Author notes implementation as a subclass of Vector provides inheritance of methods inappropriate for a Stack • suggests this violates rule of thumb for use of the extends • Vector contains messages not appropriate that should not be used in Stack

  33. 12.4 Example: Building a Queue Class • In a queue, • new values are always added at the front or head of the list • values are removed from the opposite end of the list, the rear or tail • Examples of queues • checkout at supermarket • vehicles at toll booth • ticket line at movies • Queue exhibits First-In-First-Out behavior

  34. Queues in a Computer System • When a process (program) requires a certain resource • printer • disk access on a network • characters in a keyboard buffer • Queue Manipulation Operations • isEmpty(): returns true or false • first(): returns copy of value at front • add(v): adds a new value at rear of queue • remove(): removes, returns value at front

  35. Implementing a Queue Class • Implement as a LinkedList attribute value • insertions and deletions from either end are efficient, occur in constant O(1) time • good choice • Implement as an ArrayList attribute • poor choice • adding values at one end, removing at other end require multiple shifts

  36. Implementing a Queue Class • Build a Queue from scratch • build a linked structure to store the queue elements • Attributes required • handle for the head node • handle for tail node • integer to store number of values in the queue • use SinglyLinkedNode class, source code, Figure 12.8

  37. Queue Structure aQueue myHeadmySizemyTail n . . . value0 value1 . . . valuen-1

  38. Queue Class Methods • Constructor • set myHead, myTail to null • set mySize to zero • isEmpty() • return results of comparison mySize == 0 • front() • return myHead.getValue() // unless empty

  39. Queue Class Methods • add() • create new node, update attribute variables • if queue is empty, must also update myHead • remove() • must check if class not emptyotherwise … • save handle to first object • adjust head to refer to node • update mySize Note source code for whole class, Figure 12.9

  40. 12.5 An Introduction to Trees • We seek a way to organized a linked structure so that … • elements can be searched more quickly than in a linearly linked structure • also provide for easy insertion/deletion • permit access in less than O(n) time • Recall binary search strategy • look in middle of list • keep looking in middle of subset above or below current location in list • until target value found

  41. Drawn as a binary tree 49 28 66 80 62 13 35 Visualize Binary Search 13 28 35 49 62 66 80

  42. Sibling nodes Parent and child nodes Leaf nodes Tree Terminology • A tree consists of: • finite collection of nodes • non empty tree has a root node • root node has no incoming links • every other node in the tree can be reached from the root by unique sequence of links 49 28 66 80 62 13 35

  43. Applications of Trees • Genealogical tree • pictures a person's descendants and ancestors • Game trees • shows configurations possible in a game such as the Towers of Hanoi problem • Parse trees • used by compiler to check syntax and meaning of expressions such as 2 * ( 3 + 4 )

  44. Examples of Binary Trees • Each node has at most two children • Useful in modeling processes where a test has only two possible outcomes • true or false • coin toss, heads or tails • Each unique path can be described by the sequence of outcomes • Can be applied to decision trees in expert systems of artificial intelligence

  45. Implementing Binary Trees • Binary tree represented by multiply linked structure • each node has two links and a handle to the data • one link to left child, other to the right myValue Value myLeftChild myRightChild

  46. Pointers to succeeding nodes Handle to stored value Implementing Binary Trees • Declaration of BinaryTreeNode classpublic class BinaryTreeNode{// … methods go here// Attributesprivate BinaryTreeNode myLeftChild, myRightChild;private Object myValue; }

  47. Implementing Binary Trees • BinaryTreeNode is only one of the attributes of a BinaryTree class • Also need an attribute that keeps track of the number of nodes in the treepublic class BinaryTree extends Object{// … methodsprivate BinaryTreeNode myRoot;private int mySize;}

  48. Visualizing a BinaryTree aBTree myRootmySize 3 46 63 17    

  49. Binary Search Trees Search Algorithm • Initialize a handle currentNode to the node containing the root • Repeatedly do the following: If target_item < currentNode.myValue set currentNode = currentNode.leftChild If target_item > currentNode.myValueset currentNode = currentNode.rightChild Else terminate repetition because target_item has been found

  50. Tree Traversals • A traversal is moving through the binary tree, visiting each node exactly once • for now order not important • Traverse Algorithm • Visit the root and process its contents • Traverse the left subtree • visit its root, process • traverse left sub-sub tree • traverse right sub-sub tree • Traverse the right subtree • …