H1N1 Influenza Liz Ritchie, M.S. Risk Communication Analyst Office of Public Health Preparedness
A couple housekeeping things… • Welcome! • My presentation = 20 minutes. • Your questions = 10 minutes. • A little about me. • This might be our first meeting, but shouldn’t be the last.
What I will cover… • Some history. • Some very basic biology. • A little terminology. • Reflections on recent experience. • What now?
Last Four Pandemics 1918: Influenza A (H1N1), severe, killed 20 million 1957: Influenza A (H2N2), moderate, killed 70,000 1968: Influenza A (H3N2), moderate, killed 34,000 2009: Influenza A (H1N1), mild, killed ? Strong potential for animal infection spreading to humans (zoonosis). Some History
Some Very Basic Biology • Virus • ~1/100th size of bacteria • examples: influenza, smallpox, Ebola, HIV, polio • covered by protein coat • some have fat envelope • host cell required for reproduction • not all cause disease • high mutation rate • antibiotics are ineffective • can treat with antivirals or vaccines (if available)
A little terminology… • Immunity: a protective element, often gained by previous exposure. • Novel: something we’ve never seen before. • no vaccine available • may or may not have effective antivirals • no natural immunity • Transmissibility: how easy something spreads from one thing to another. • Virulence: how likely something is to cause disease.
2009 Influenza A (H1N1) – pandemic strain 99% of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) = this strain Michigan schools closed = 73 Michigan ILI (October 25-31) = 59,629 Michigan H1N1-related Deaths = ~17 48 U.S. states reporting “widespread activity” Global: over 441,661 cases with 5712 deaths… < 1% Avian Influenza A (H5N1) widely circulating since 2003 15 countries 442 cases with 262 deaths… 59% Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/ World Health Organization http://www.who.int/ Recent Experience
Prevention • Vaccination is the best way to prevent influenza infection and its complications. • Vaccine is slowly being produced… about 10 million doses each week. • Expect the H1N1 vaccine to be as safe as seasonal flu vaccines. • Children require two shots for full immune response. • Current target groups: pregnant women, people 6-24, anyone who has regular contact with children < 6 months old, emergency and healthcare personnel, and anyone with underlying health conditions. • Everyday actions can help prevent transmission. • Wash your hands regularly with soap and water. • Don’t cough/sneeze on people (or in your hands). • Stay home if you’re sick.
Treatment • Antivirals (Tamiflu®, Relenza®) • patients who are severely ill (such as those who are hospitalized) • patients who are ill with influenza-like illness and have a higher risk for influenza related complications • In vast majority of cases, healthy individuals recover from H1N1 influenza. • lots of fluids • rest • antipyretics to reduce fever/discomfort • cough syrup
What Now? • Get your seasonal and H1N1 vaccines. • Regularly check the CDC’s and Michigan’s influenza websites. • www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu • www.michigan.gov/flu • 911 Coordinators should be in contact with their respective LHD/hospital emergency preparedness coordinator(s), health officer(s), and medical director(s). • Regularly check the local health department website(s) for your area.
Thank You! Liz Ritchie Risk Communication Analyst Office of Public Health Preparedness (517) 335-8839 firstname.lastname@example.org