Home Computer Use and Academic Achievement Jessica Alvarez Education 702.22 Fall 2009 Professor O’Connor-Petruso
Table of Contents • Abstract • Introduction -Statement of the Problem -Review of Related Literature -Statement of the Hypothesis • Method -Participants (N) -Instrument (s) -Experimental Design -Procedure • Results • Discussion • Implications • References • Appendix
Statement of the Problem • The use of technology by young children has been linked to improved academic performance. Over the past two decades, computer use at home has gradually risen. This trend has lead to a growing concern for those children without home computer access to perhaps, be at a disadvantage when it comes to enhancing school performance.
Theorist • Jean Piaget-considered children to be constructors of their own development through their actions. • Erik Erikson- Stage of Initiative vs. Guilt: Permitted to explore variety of materials and activities.
Theorist • Lev Vygotsky: Children construct their knowledge through structured tasks. • Zone of Proximal Development • Scaffolding
Review of Literature • Years of research has focused on whether computers facilitate learning, especially if students have access to them at home. Many studies have found that home computers are associated with higher test scores in mathematics and reading (Attewell & Battle, 1999; Jackson, von Eye, & Biocca, 2003; Espinosa, Laffey, Whittaker, & Sheng, 2006; Tsikalas, Lee, & Newkirk, 2007; Gil-Flores, 2007). • Many parents believe computers should support their children’s learning (educational software, Internet). Yet children spend most of their times playing games that typically are not found in classrooms (Kerawalla & Crook, 2002; Vryzas & Tsitouridou, 2002; Lauman, 2000; Subrahmanyam, Kraut, Greenfield, & Gross, 2000; O’Dwyer, Russell, Bebell, & Tucker-Seeley, 2005; Lai, Chang, & Ye, 2006).
Review of Literature • Playing computer games takes away from other activities with greater developmental value (interpersonal skills; developing “electronic friendships”). Can lead to feelings of loneliness, aggression and/or depression (Subrahmanyam et al., 2000). • Owning a computer will depend on the child’s socioeconomic status (SES), since the purchase of a computer is a considerable amount that must be figured into the family budget. New inequalities are created on the children of the lower social classes, who find themselves at a disadvantage; “digital divide” (Jackson, Eye, Biocca, Barbatsis, Zhao & Fitzgerald, 2006; Attewell, Suazo-Garcia, & Battle, 2003; Vryzas & Tsitouridou, 2002; McCarrick & Li, 2007; Clotfelter, Ladd & Vigdor, 2008).
Review of Literature • Students with access to computers at home demonstrate an increase level of confidence, comfort, and tenacity when using the computers at school. These students have an advantage because they do not need to learn the basic skills to navigate a computer (Lauman, 2000; Tsikalas, Lee, & Newkirk, 2007). • Reversal of the traditional parent-child relationship: computer savvy child taking on the role as teacher (Subrahmanyam et al., 2000). YouTube - The Rookies: Kylie, Age 4 ½ YouTube - Good News - Windows 7 Commercial
Statement of Hypothesis HR1: Allotting fifteen minutes a day, during a six week period, to twenty-two first grade students at P.S. X, to use computers (i.e. visiting educational websites) at school, the library or at a friend’s home (with parental permission), will improve their overall Fountas and Pinnell reading level.
Participants • Twenty-two first grade students - twelve boys, ten girls - age range: 5-6 years - From P.S. X in Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn Class is a racially mixed- • Caucasian: 8 • African Americans: 6 • Middle Eastern: 6 • Hispanic: 2
Instruments • Consent form - explaining the reason for the action research project - inform principal and parents of method in which students will be studied and assessed • Survey - background information - computer access
References • Attewell, P., Suazo-Garcia, B., & Battle, J. (2003). Computers and Young Children: • Social Benefit or Social Problem? Social Forces,82 (1), 277-296. Retrieved from • Jstor database. • Attewell, P., & Battle, J. (1999). Home Computers and School Performance. The • Information Society, 15, 1-10. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ERIC Document • Reproduction Service No. 593524). • Becker, H. (2000). Who’s Wired and Who’s Now: Children’s Access to and Use of • Computer Technology. The Future of Children, 10 (2), 44-75. Retrieved from Jstor • database. • Clotfelter, C., Ladd, H., & Vigdor, J. (2009, July 29). Scaling the Digital Divide: Home • Computer Technology and Student Achievement. Retrieved on • from: http://econrsss.anu.edu.au/pdf/seminars/2009juldec/vigdor09.pdf • Edyburn, D. L. (2006). Evaluate Academic Performance With And Without Technology. • Macul Journal. Retrieved from • https://pantherfile.uwm.edu/edyburn/www/js06evaluatea.pdf • Gil-Flores, J. (2007). Computer use and students’ academic achievement. Retrieved • from: http://www.formatex.org/micte2009/book/1291-1295.pdf • Jackson, L. A., Von Eye, A., Biocca, F. A., Barbatsis, G., Zhao, Y., & Fitzgerald, H. E. • (2006). Does Home Internet Use Influence the Academic Performance of Low- • Income Children? American Psychological Association, 42(3), 429-435. Retrieved • from ERIC database. (ERIC Document Reproduction • Service No. 741417).
References • Johnson, K. (2000). Do Computers in the Classroom Boost Academic Achievement? The • Heritage Foundation. Retrieved from • http://www.heritage.org/research/education/CDA00-08.cfm • Karchmer, R. (2001). The Journey Ahead: Thirteen Teachers Report How the Interney • Influences Literacy and Literacy Instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 36 (4), • 442- 466. Retrieved from Jstor database. • Kerawlla, L. & Crook, C. (2002). Children's Computer Use at Home and at School: • context and continuity. British Educational Research Journal, 28 (6), 751-771. • Retrieved on October 12, 2009 from Teacher Reference Center database. • Kupperman, J., & Fisherman, B. (2001). Academic, Social, and Personal Uses of the • Internet: Cases of Students from an Urban Latino Classroom. Journal of Research on • Technology in Education, 34 (2), 189-215. Retrieved from Teacher Reference Center • database. (Accession No. 16830834) • Lai, S., Chang, T., & Ye, R. (2006). Computer Usage and Reading in Elementary Schools: • A Cross- Cultural Study. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 34 (1), 47-66. • Retrieved from ERIC database. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 738165). • Lauman, D. (2000). Student Home Computer Use: A Review of the Literature. Journal of • Research on Computing in Education, 33 (2), 196. Retrieved from Teacher Reference Center • database. • Linder, D. (2004). The Internet in every classroom? Using outside computers. ELT • Journal: English Language Teachers Journal, 58 (1), 10-16. Retrieved from Teacher • Reference Center database.
References • McCarrick, K., & Xiaoming, (2007). Buried treasure: The impact of computer use on • young children’s social, cognitive, language development and motivation. AACE • Journal, 15(1), 73-95. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ERIC Document • Reproduction Service No. 805602 ). • O’Dwyer, L. M., Russell, M., Bebell, D., & Tucker-Seeley, K. R. (2005). • Examining the Relationship Between Home and School Computer Use and • Students’ English/Language Arts Test Scores. Journal of Technology, Learning • and Assessment, 3(3). Retrieved from ERIC database. (ERIC Reproduction Service No. • EJ848513) • Rosen, J. (2000, February 15). New bill would bring thousands of computers to youths. • CNN.com. Retrieved from • http://archives.cnn.com/2000/TECH/computing/02/15/forget.cookies.pcs.idg/index.html • Scott, T., Cole, M., & Engel, M. (1992). Computers and Education: A Cultural • Constuctivist Perspective. Review of Research in Education, 18, 191-251. Retrieved • from Jstor database. • Sexton, D., King, N., Aldridge, J., & Goodstadt-Killoran, I. (1999). Measuring and • Evaluating Early Childhood Prospective Practitioners' Attitudes toward Computers. • Family Relations, 48 (3), 277-285. Retrieved from Jstor database. • Subrahmanyam, K., Kraut, R. E., Greenfield, P. M., & Gross, E. F. (2000). The Impact of • Home Computer Use and Children’s Activities and Development. The Future of • Children Children and Computer Technology, 10(2). Retrieved from • http://futureofchildren.org/futureofchildren/publications/docs/10_02_05.pdf
References • Taningco, M. T., Mathew, A. B., & Pachon, H. P. (2008). Computer Use, Parental • Expectations & Latino Academic Achievement. The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute. • Retrieved from http://www.ibm.com/ibm/ibmgives/downloads/Quant_Study_04-16- • 08.pdf • Tsikalas, K., Lee, J., & Newkirk, C. (2007). Home computing, school engagement and • academic achievement of low-income adolescents. Computers for Youth Foundation, • Inc. Retrieved from http://www.theddi.org/forms/CFY-ETS%20Study.pdf • Vryzas, K. & Tsitouridou, M. (2002). The Home Computer in Children's Everyday Life: • the case of Greece. Journal of Educational Media, 27 (1/2), 9-17. Retrieved on • from Teacher Reference Center database. • Wartella, E. A., & Jennings, N. (2000). Children and Computers: New Technology. Old • Concerns. The Future of Children, 10 (2), 31-43. Retrieved from Jstor databases. • Wittwer, J. & Senkbeil, M. (2008). “Is students’ computer use at home related to their • mathematical performance at school?” Computers & Education, 50, 1558–1571. • Retrieved from ScienceDirect database.