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Germany Issue 1 Why did Nationalism grow in the German states after 1815?

Germany Issue 1 Why did Nationalism grow in the German states after 1815?. Higher History. We are learning to… Explain why the desire for a unified Germany grew in the Germanic states after 1851 I can… Build up notes on the topic Plan a 20 mark essay Pass a 20 mark timed essay. Background.

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Germany Issue 1 Why did Nationalism grow in the German states after 1815?

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  1. Germany Issue 1Why did Nationalism grow in the German states after 1815? Higher History

  2. We are learning to… Explain why the desire for a unified Germany grew in the Germanic states after 1851 I can… Build up notes on the topic Plan a 20 mark essay Pass a 20 mark timed essay

  3. Background • In 1815 Europe had just defeated Napoleon • Germany as we know it did not exist • There were 39 German ‘states’, each was ruled by it’s own Prince • The joined in the German Confederation (Bund) which aimed to make Germany stronger in Europe and protect the member states • It had a parliament (Diet) but it did not achieve much because the states often disagreed • During the nineteenth century, the population of these German states realised they had much in common and began to develop the sense they were not just citizens of their own state but part of a German people (volk)

  4. . • .

  5. There were various things that members of the Holy Roman Empire had in common… • LANGUAGE: In 1815 there were strong pro – German feelings as most people within the borders of the old Holy Roman Empire spoke German, this was a powerful unifying force. • BORDERS: There were distinct boundaries that separated Germany from other states e.g. Russian Empire, France • HISTORY: Members of the Holy Roman Empire had a long history of struggles with neighbours such as France, which they were proud of e.g. helped to defeat Napoleon.

  6. Main Reasons for the Growth of German Nationalism‘The Factors’ • Between 1815 and 1850 nationalistic feeling began to grow within the Holy Roman Empire • There were several reasons for this; • Cultural Factors (to do with heritage and history) • Political Factors (political advantages of a united Germany) • Economic Factors (to do with money and Prussia’s role)

  7. Culture: Knowledge The biggest factor was undoubtedly a shared German language which united all Germans. About 25 million people spoke German although dialects were common. Many writers and thinkers supported the idea of a united Germany such as Heinrich Hieneand Johan Fichte who encouraged German consciousness Johan Fichte described Germany as ‘the Fatherland’ and said that German people must unite for economic reasons There was a distinctive German literature – writers such as Hegel, Goethe and Schiller and these writers promoted the idea of a German nation-state and wrote about German characteristics

  8. There were German folk tales compiled and published by the Brothers Grimm. The first collection of fairy tales Childrens and Household Tales was published in 1812 and it contained more than 200 fairy tales. ‘Hansel and Gretel’ and ‘Snow White’ and other fairytales celebrated Germany’s past and looked forward to the day when Germany would be an independent nation The music of Beethoven also helped to inspire the German people, German music for Germans. Student societies sprang up across the German states known as Burschenstaffenwho were passionate nationalists and supported a united Germany

  9. Cultural Nationalism - Analysis (Basic analysis) • This shows the biggest cultural factor was undoubtedly the German language which did unite all German speaking people and gave them an identity. • Since few Germans could read, simple German folk tales by the Brothers Grimm were important in inspiring a feeling of being German and the growing popularity of German music promoted national feeling . There is evidence to show that workers who were increasingly huddled together in towns and cities were starting to take a much bigger interest in politics

  10. Cultural Nationalism – Analysis contd. (Analysis +) • However, some historians like Golo Mann questioned the importance of cultural nationalism when he wrote that most Germans ‘seldom looked up from the plough’ - In other words most did not know about big national issues or German culture • Many historians have argued that nationalism was mainly a middle class phenomenon and did not concern the majority of ordinary working Germans therefore reducing the importance of cultural factors • In addition, the ideas of the Burschenstaffen tended to be of the romantic nature rather than having any clear direction

  11. Cultural factors – A+ example • On the one hand a common German identity was evident in German music, literature and folk tales and the German language was an important unifying force However on the other hand most Germans were more concerned with their daily living standards rather than literature so culture was more a middle class phenomenon

  12. Political NationalismKnowledge • An important part of political factors were the Nationalists and Liberals • Nationalists were the people who passionately believed in a united Germany and promoted the advantages (such as the Burschenstaffen) • Liberals were the people that believed Germany should be run as a parliamentary democracy with elected representatives rather than monarchs (princes in Germany’s case) • Both of these groups worked hard to spread their ideas across the German states

  13. The French Revolution: Knowledge • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VEZqarUnVpo • Following the news of the French Revolution in Paris in 1789, there was a wave of student activity across the German states • German nationalists and Liberals were inspired by the ideas of liberty and nationalism and hoped that these would spread to the German states • At the Hambach festival the red, gold and black colours were first used to symbolise German nationalism – giving the nationalists an identity

  14. The French Revolution: Analysis Analysis (basic) The activities of the Burschenstaffen, students and Liberals across the German states & the influence of the French Revolution showed that nationalist sentiment was certainly present in Germany and had real support (Analysis +) However it has been argued by some historians that activities, demonstrations and waving of coloured flags did very little to actually advance the cause of German unification

  15. Between 1800 and 1815 the divided German states had been easily conquered by the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte who merged the hundreds of German states into 39 larger states called the Confederation of the Rhine. The 39 states realised that being small and politically divided meant Germany was vulnerable to aggressors The German Princes stirred up nationalistic feelings to help drive Napoleon out of Germans The united German states eventually drove Napoleon out, showing the strength and benefits of uniting The Napoleonic Wars: Knowledge

  16. Analysis (basic) Strong nationalist feelings had been stirred by the Napoleonic wars and many Germans became convinced of the benefits of uniting the German states Support for nationalism was strong in the educated elite who supported the principles of liberalism (the Liberals) and also in students, who started student societies to show their support for nationalist The eventual success of the united German states showed even the most sceptical German how much stronger militarily the states were together Many people became more nationalistic and believed the German states were stronger together and unification could help defend Germany from other European powers The Napoleonic Wars: Analysis

  17. The Napoleonic Wars: Analysis (Analysis +) However, it could be argued the support for nationalism of the individual Princes was temporary – only to drive Napoleon out – and the German princes were more concerned with protecting their own power and influence rather than any movement towards unification

  18. Example: Prince Metternich • Crown prince of Austria and very anti-nationalist • Passed a set of laws known as the Carlsbad Decrees in 1819 which banned Burschenstaffen (student societies) and censored nationalist newspapers

  19. Political – A+ example On the one hand Napoleon’s defeat and the spread of liberal ideas were definitely important in encouraging Germans to look towards the idea of a stronger & fairer German nation However on the other hand the German parliament (bund) was anti-Nationalist and the German Princes did all they could to protect their own power and hold back the growth of nationalism

  20. Economic Nationalism: Knowledge Population Change Urbanisation (movement of people to cities) and Industrialisation (growth of factories) led to major population growth in Germany where the population went from 25million in 1816 to 34 million by 1840 Analysis (basic) It has been argued that the forces unleashed by industrialisation (overcrowding, low wages & growth of middle class) did help push German states towards unification as people pressed for a fairer tax system across all the states Analysis+ However other historians have pointed out that in the 1840 census only 600,000 people were city factory workers which limits this argument

  21. Economic Nationalism: Knowledge The Zollverein Many people across the German states complained about the burden of taxes which were placed on goods as they moved across the states These meant that goods would end up very expensive if they had travelled through a number of German states to arrive at it’s destination • In 1818, internal taxes in Prussia (the biggest German state) were abolished, creating a large free trade area • In 1834 the Zollverein (customs union) was established and two years later 25 of the 39 German states had signed up to the new free trade area (anti Nationalist Austria was excluded)

  22. Economic - Analysis • (Basic analysis) • The Zollverein showed even the poorest German the benefits a united Germany would bring. • The Zollverein brought German states together, excluded Austria who hated nationalism and increased the power of Prussia. • Without the Zollverein, Prussia would not have had the muscle to defeat the power of Austria. • Many historians believe this to be the single most important factor in the growth of German Nationalism and William Carr has called the Zollverein the, ‘mighty lever of German unification’. • The success of economic unity across the German states led people to think about a political union

  23. The Growth of Railways:Knowledge • The development of the railways from the mid 1830s ended the isolation of the individual German states and allowed the transport of people and goods easily • By 1850 over 3000 miles of railway had been built across the German states, boosting the need for coal and steel and improving economic cooperation across the German states

  24. Analysis: The Growth of Railways • (Basic analysis) • Railways did not only spread goods but also broke down barriers between states and spread the ideas of nationalism - As Germans travelled on the railways new ideas of nationalism spread more easily.

  25. Prussia’s Role: Knowledge Nationalists and liberals across the German states looked to Prussia, the largest German state for leadership in the question of German Unity The Zollverein had been implemented by Prussia and the growing German rail network grew around Prussia (Basic analysis) The growth of the German economy around Prussia helped national feeling grow and Prussia’s exclusion of Austria from the Zollverein meant that the smaller German states increasingly looked towards Prussia for leadership in unifying the German states

  26. Prussia’s Role: Knowledge

  27. Economic factors Inc. railways A+ example On the one hand money and the cost of living was important to every German and the Zollverein showed Germans of all classes the economic advantages of a more united Germany however on the other hand without a common German language the Zollverein would have faced difficulties in organising and the railway system was needed for the Zollverein’s success so economic factors were not the sole factor.

  28. Topic Summary There were three important factors for the growth of German nationalism: • Cultural factors especially a common German language did make Germans feel close to one another, as well as German writers, music, a common history etc . • Political developments such as the defeat of Napoleon or the German Bund, even the 1848 revolutions gave Germans an example of how powerful they could be if they united. • Economic factors such as the Zollverein gave Germans a reason for co-operating as they made a profit from trade and the growth of the railway system did bring Germans closer together and spread ideas e.g. travel, post, newspapers etc.

  29. Consolidation • A good idea when you have taken all your notes for a topic is to create a condensed revision guide for the essay • This might be a mind map, picture map, bullet points etc. but should fit on one page • Do this for homework (example on next page)

  30. Success Criteria • All four factors covered • 2 Knowledge points for each factor (min) • 4 examples of basic analysis • 2 examples of A+

  31. Essay Questions • German nationalism is an example of an isolated factor essay – this means the SQA will ask you whether women got the vote because of a specific factor (one of the 5 we cover) • You must talk about the factor in the question BUT you do not need to agree it is the most important • Examples To what extent was the rise of the nationalism in Germany after 1815 due to the Zollverein? How far can it be argued that nationalist feeling grew in the German states after 1815 due to cultural factors ? ‘The growth of nationalism in Germany after 1815 was mainly due to political factors’. Discuss.

  32. Historians Views – may help with evaluation • To support Cultural factors • Fichte – ‘Those who speak the same language are joined to each other by invisible bonds’ • Golo Mann - ‘most Germans seldom looked up from the plough’ • Andrina Stiles – ‘even in 1815 there were tens of thousands of people…who felt passionately that Germans deserved to have a Fatherland’ • Andrina Stiles – ‘Nationalism remained largely middle class before 1848’

  33. Historians Views – may help with evaluation • To support economic factors • Ian Mitchell – argues the customs & taxes in German states had held back nationalism • William Carr (on the Zollverein) ‘the mighty lever of German unification’ • Andrina Stiles – ‘The Zollverein was a force for unity in the 1840s’ • David Thomson – argues the Industrial Revolution changed the political order across Europe

  34. Evaluation • A good way to approach trying to get the final 4 marks for evaluation is to take your factors (3 in this case) and rank them from most important to least important • Try to come up with a reason Why each is in that place (not why it is important but why it is more or less important) • A priority diagram can be a good technique to use – try to relate every factor back to your most important

  35. Evaluation E1 and E2 - 2 marks can be gained from making evaluative comments which relate to individual factors Example – Upon evaluation, ______ was the most/least important factor in the growth of nationalism because… NB – You must be saying something new in your evaluation, not repeating your analysis or doing ‘mini conclusions’

  36. Evaluation + E+ - up to 4 marks can be gained from making evaluative comments which show the relative importance between factors (i.e. you compare two) Example – Upon evaluation, the economic factors were more important than the cultural factors because… NB – You must be saying something new in your evaluation, not repeating your analysis or doing ‘mini conclusions’ Remember analysis is really tricky and many candidates get 0/4 but still get an A!

  37. Writing the intro Background – 2/3 sentences – describe Germany pre growth of nationalism (Before 1815…) Factors – There were many factors in the growth of nationalism such as…(a list is fine) Argument – It can be argued that _____ was the most important factor in the growth of nationalism because…

  38. Conclusion – 4 step plan • In conclusion, there were many reasons why nationalism grew in the German states after 1815. • On the one hand… (you should take one key factor here and explain why it was important) • On the other hand… (now you should do the same with another key factor to balance your argument) • Overall, the most important factor was… (keep your strongest until last, backing up why it is so important and it should be clear why it outweighs the other factors)

  39. German Nationalism – practice essay Q • How important were cultural factors in the growth of national feeling in Germany between 1815 and 1850? 20 marks

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