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Volleyball Officiating:. The 3 Cs Clinician: Jim Beyer Middle Tennessee Volleyball Officials Association August 14, 2008. INTRODUCTION. Who am I? Why am I here?
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Volleyball Officiating: The 3 Cs Clinician: Jim Beyer Middle Tennessee Volleyball Officials Association August 14, 2008
INTRODUCTION Who am I? Why am I here? Who are you? Why are you here?
Make the Commitment to Become the Best Volleyball Official You Can Be Obtaining a license to officiate and renewing it each year is not enough. Coaches and players are entitled to quality officiating which comes, in part, from: • studying the rules and applying them properly; • learning new techniques; • mastering points of emphasis; • receiving feedback; • setting goals; • engaging in a self-critique process to turn weaknesses into strengths; • establishing a mentor-mentee relationship.
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The 3 Cs of Officiating Volleyball 1.COMMUNICATION 2. CONSISTENCY 3. CONTROL
The 3 Cs of Officiating Volleyball COMMUNICATION Approach: • Success of any relationship depends upon effective communication. • It is usually better to be proactive rather than reactive. • Create a professional climate through: • Awareness of self. How am I doing? How am I being received and perceived? • Respect for self and others. • Being a good listener open to give-and-take exchanges.
The 3 Cs of Officiating Volleyball With whom do you communicate? • Your Partner • Assistant Officials/Support Staff • Players • Coaches • Host Management • Fans • Assigner • Self
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Your Partner Your Partner is Your Fellow Official • You are match facilitators • Officials are judged in terms of how well they did as a team. • Begin with a pre-match contact. • Enter the venue together. Enter the court together. • Meet the coaches together. • Leave the court and venue together. • If at all possible have a post-match conference. • Support your partner throughout the match. • A thumbs up or hand clap after a long rally or “good call” is important (“good job” during time-out or between games).
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Your Partner For effective teamwork, you can: • Share the workload (net check, area inspection, ball pressure check, and instruction of assistant officials/support staff). • Conduct a pre-match discussion lead by the First Referee during which: • Second Referee gets an answer to “what do you expect of me?” • Informal signals, given discreetly, are thoroughly covered***. • Emphasize eye contact “CENTERING” (before, during and after each play). • Agree upon an exit plan to “toot and scoot” after match (sign the score sheet?). • Meet for a post-match discussion with a candid assessment of how you worked as a team, what worked well, what could have been better?
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Assistant Officials/Support Staff Creating a rapport is essential! Volleyball is unique, in that, we may have unpaid, uncertified, unimpartial volunteers making critical decisions. Assistant Officials (new for 2008) • Line Judges • Scorer • Libero Tracker • Timer/Scoreboard Operator Support Staff • Announcer • Ball “Shaggers” (when you have them!)
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Assistant Officials Line Judges: • The First Referee typically instructs the line judges, evaluates ability/experience, places them in their respective positions (less experienced to the right of First Referee), and evaluates their performance. Use the acronym “SALT” (Service, Antenna, Line, Touch) to teach/review signals (with or without flags). • Accepting Line Judge calls validates the Line Judges and benefits the match. Ask for constant eye contact with the First Referee. • Address overruling and not able to call as possibilities. • Use time-outs for further instruction or reminders.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Assistant Officials Scorer/Scorekeeper: • Second Referee typically works with the official scorer, evaluates experience, checks line-up entry, checks the score sheet during time-outs and prepares the scorer to be ready to provide information before, during or after the play, such as the numbers of the next 3 servers (front row). • Second Referee reminds the scorer to identify a wrong server prior to the serve but report it to Second Referee after service contact. • Ensuring the proper score is kept means the Second Referee gives the scorer enough time to record substitutions, including time to verify that the scoreboard matches the score sheet.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Assistant Officials Libero Tracker: • The Second Referee works with the Libero Tracker and ensures the Libero Tracker is partnering with the scorer. • The Libero Tracker is instructed to ensure proper libero replacements occur, that the same 2 numbers are on either side of the “L,” that all substitutions are recorded as well as libero replacements, that libero exchange rules are followed and that libero serving is properly recorded. • Illegal libero replacements should be reported immediately when identified by the libero tracker. • If working with a novice scorer or libero tracker, use the rules book for a guide.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Assistant Officials Timer/Scoreboard Operator: • The Second Referee works with the timer to ensure the horn or buzzer sounds under certain circumstances and that the score is posted accurately. This occurs in concert with the scorer (scorer sits between the timer and libero tracker). • The Second Referee and First Referee observes and backs up the timing of match segments throughout the match and addresses any problems. • The Second Referee communicates expectations for warm-ups, time-outs and between-game intervals.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Support Staff Announcer: • The First Referee works with the announcer to ensure a common understanding of: • How player introductions and the National Anthem will occur (timing and duration). • Any special events such as senior’s, parent’s nights. • Whether the announcer will indicate who is serving and make a neutral commentary, if any commentary is made at all.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Support Staff Ball Shaggers: • The Second Referee typically instructs the ball shaggers regarding: • Wiping the ball to keep it dry. • When the ball goes to the server and where the extra balls should go (3-ball rotation). • Properly rolling the ball. • Avoiding interfering with play and safety issues. Encourage the use of ball shaggers, if properly educated they can enhance the flow and tempo of the match.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Players • Perception is reality. Don’t call players by their names which conveys favoritism. To talk with the captain, say “captain.” They’re really the only players to address officials. • If you do need to talk directly with a player, use the player’s number (“#5,…) or go through the captain or coach. • Treat players with respect and dignity. • Post match, limit any commentary to “nice match.” Never touch a player or coach other than via a handshake and only if the handshake is initiated by the player or coach.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Coaches • Perception is reality. Approach with your partner for introductions (when both coaches are courtside, home coach first), trying to spend equal time with each, be cordial but brief, address new rules or rule questions. Never ever comment on the performance of an individual or team. • Address the coach by saying “coach” and not by using the coach’s name. • Go through the coach to address a problem with a player on the court or bench personnel. • Don’t initiate a post-match hand shake. • Don’t linger after match to make yourself accessible.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Coaches/Captains Pre-Timed Warm-up Meeting with Head Coaches and Captains • The First Referee introduces him/herself and partner, and asks captains and coaches to introduce themselves. • The First Referee goes over the court and playing area, legal equipment and uniforms, match and warm-up format and Second Referee adds information including waiting for authorization for subs to enter. The First Referee then asks if there are any questions. • Conclude with the calling of the coin toss by the visiting team captain, ask the home team captain to repeat the call and both teams are shown the result of toss. Wish “good luck”, then identify immediately (coin in pocket) which team has the serve to the scorer. • The First Referee instructs the Timer to begin the Timed Warm-up. Both Referees keep time on their watches to provide a back-up.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Coaches Responding to Coach During Match • The Second Referee’s role is to serve and protect the First Referee. When a coach has a problem or question, the Second Referee positions herself/himself to prevent the coach yelling across court at the First Referee. • The Second Referee is proactive in anticipating if a coach will have a concern about a close call or non-call. • The Second Referee may go to the coach to diffuse an outburst. Be a good listener. Succinctly respond and end with “let’s play,” and give the court back to the First Referee. • After “let’s play” the coach risks a card with further interruptions. • Judgment calls are not to be questioned.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Host Management (usually the Athletic Director) • Affirm details and that you will be officiating at least 7 days prior to the match with a phone call or email to the Athletic Department. • Greet the Athletic Director; identify room to change clothes and store officiating gear. • If refreshments are provided be sure to express your appreciation. Do not push for receiving refreshments. • Identify where host management will be located, if needed, before, during and after the match. “Where will you be…?” • Involve host management when there are facility problems, safety concerns, unruly fans, or other such issues.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Fans • Generally, do not respond to fans during a match (perception that the official has “rabbit ears”). • If there is an unruly fan(s), suspend play until host management intervenes and either removes the fan(s) or ensures there will be no further problems. • If the opportunity presents itself, you might seek to explain a rule to a fan. But, avoid confrontation at all cost, since this is a no-win situation. • Monitor flash photography during play (distraction or safety issue?). • Avoid using a public restroom, going to the concession stand and crowds.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Your Assigner • Work with your assigner through prompt acceptance or rejection of assignments. Never push or politic for particular matches, but make your availability known. • Honor your commitments, and fulfill your contractual obligations. Never seek a casual release from a contract. Don’t intentionally double book. • If expected to, obtain an acceptable replacement when you have to turn back an assignment for a valid reason. • If there were any problems at a match, notify your assigner immediately. • Don’t forget to say, “thanks.”
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Yourself • Use “self encouragement” through positive thoughts. If you’re thinking about the call that you might have missed, you’re probably going to miss the next one. • Not What If? But What Now? • Don’t dwell on your mistakes; learn from them. • Try to create a comfort level, relax and relieve stress through such techniques as deep breathing and imaging. • Evaluate yourself fairly. • Be aware of how you relate to others and how you are “received” and “perceived.” • Try to maintain a constant wide to narrow focus while you’re on the stand as First Referee or working on the floor as Second Referee. • Talk to yourself. Before Beckon, “Where are my setters?” Consistency
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Ball handling • Rules • Observations • Warnings • Sanctions
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Ball Handling: • Establish a comfort zone. • Know what is acceptable to allow, and let play continue. The first few calls set the tone for the match. • Know what not to call, and don’t call it! Decide if the player is playing the ball or if the ball is playing the player. • One philosophy is don’t call it unless it’s “gross” which is clearly a matter of judgment. Don’t go by looks, sound, spin or body position, only the contact with the ball that you see. • Don’t look ahead of the play. The eyes of the First Referee must be focused on the part of the body making contact with the ball.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Ball Handling: • “Ugly” is not necessarily a violation. • Judge the duration and the direction. • Too much control is going to be an illegal hit for prolonged contact (called any time). • Lack of control likely is going to be a double hit or multiple contacts. First team contact is never a “double hit” (multiple contacts) when only one effort is being made. • The second contact likely will be a double hit, if there’s a fault, and the third hit will likely be prolonged contact.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Ball Handling: • Expect to hear such things as, “They didn’t call it that way last night,” “Call it both ways” and “Be consistent.” • The only thing that is going to be consistent about us as individual officials is that we’re different. Nevertheless, players, coaches and fans are entitled to having us be consistent during the match. • If you make a call in the first game, you better be prepared to make that same call in a deciding game. • If you called it early in the match, you have to call it late. That’s the type of consistency we should be striving for.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Ball Handling: • Always remember the importance of the first few “handles” since your calls and non-calls will set what the players and coaches expect for the match. • Call only the faults you actually see, and do not call a fault in response to coach, player, fan judgment. • Let the players decide the match, but don’t ignore ball-handling errors on game or match point. • If it’s an error call it; if it is not, Play On.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Rules: • There are different levels of volleyball with differences in the rules. • However, if you know one set of rules it will help to compare if you officiate under multiple rule sets. • PAVO (www.pavo.org) and USA Volleyball (www.usavolleyball.org) have rule comparison sheets on their websites that include NFHS rules. • Always have your rules book courtside. • Coaches should be accountable – Protest • Study the rules throughout the season and discuss rule situations that arise with your Rules Interpreter.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Observations: • Observe higher-level matches. To understand today’s game of volleyball, you have to be a student of the game. • Observe the play, serving patterns, receiving formations, whether you can see screening, where the setters are coming from and their opposites, offensive strategies, and during-the-match moves that address game flow and adjustments, etc. • Observe your fellow officials, but without commenting unless solicited. Are their signals clear to everyone and how well they seem to work with their partner. Watch informal signals, also called discreet signals because that is how they are to be given. • Observe how the officials interact with the coaches and the idiosyncrasies of the coaches.
The 3 Cs of OfficiatingVolleyballCONSISTENCY • Warnings: • The “gray” area vs. hard line, by-the-book approach. Will a warning affect the outcome of the match? • Treat both teams the same. • Example 1: Screening is very rarely called but happens more frequently than many think. • If you think there’s a “potential” for a screen, you can warn the players involved, but should penalize if a screen is actually committed. • Example 2: A slight overlap or illegal alignment can be warned by determining, What advantage is gained? This is supported if you’re “counting boards”. There is a philosophy to call “major” overlaps and ignore the rest. • Give numbers of players: “#5 and #6, there’s a potential overlap, coach.” Or, “Coach, potential overlap, #5 and #6, RF/RB.”
The 3 Cs of Officiating Volleyball:CONSISTENCY • Sanctions: • Key to issuing cards is first to determine whether there is an initial emotional response to a situation or a conscious reaction. • If a player’s or coach’s first reaction is sufficiently minor to be penalized with a formal warning/yellow card, try to choose this route rather than issuing a penalty/red card. • Be aware of the coaching strategy used by some to try to get a card to motivate their team or even to try to get an advantage and influence match officials.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Sanctions: • Regardless, unsporting acts have to be addressed. If you have said, “I should have given…a card” you’re probably correct. Not issuing warranted cards creates an unfair disadvantage to the other team. • Gestures as well as words can merit a sanction. • Issuance of cards is a judgment call, not subject to review. • Issuance of cards must be progressive, ie. once a yellow card has been issued to a person, no more yellow cards can be issued to that same person. • Cards carry through the remainder of the match. • UROA is the acronym to remember.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Sanctions: • Unsporting conduct is a warning (yellow card). • Rude conduct that goes beyond unsporting and or is repeated unsporting conduct by the same person is a penalty (red card). • Offensive conduct or repeated rude conduct on the part of the same person would be subject to disqualification (red and yellow cards, held apart in separate hands). • Aggressive conduct can be an immediate forfeit by the offending team . An incident report is required. • A Disqualified player must leave the playing area if adult supervision is available. A disqualified Coach must leave the building. Disqualified personnel are still subject to sanction which must result in forfeit.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Sanctions: • Ask yourself: Is my decision-making affected? If so, a sanction must be issued to the team member causing this to occur. • Sanction dispassionately, just as with any other decision that is being made. • Keep your cool. Don’t show anger. Remain as detached as you can. • Approach each match with an un-bias. Control
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Equipment • Appearance • Preparation • Confidence • Delays
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL Equipment: A pre-match inspection is a must! • Measure the net. Requires “accurate” net chain. Measure and verify marking at correct height based on level you’re working. Don’t assume your net chain is marked at the correct settings. • Check the net tension by throwing a ball into the net from 6’. The ball should rebound 2’-3’ back into court. • Don’t try to fix a net on your own. Get help from host management or the coach. • Line up the antennas on opposite sides of net, defining the outside of the sidelines using the net chain as a plumb bob/line.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Equipment: • Check for any exposed metal along the bottom or top of net, including antennas. • Check pressure in all balls (4.3-4.6 lbs.) that will be used for the match. Don’t just feel for correct pressure without also measuring using an accurate ball pressure gauge (compare to someone else’s gauge). • Distinguish game balls from other balls to avoid getting them mixed up with non-game balls.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Equipment: • Make sure the standards and First Referee stand are padded. Padding is not an option. Can’t play the match without this. • Make sure all court lines are down and at correct distances. Blue/white painters’ tape is good to fix a line. • Check to ensure the First Referee stand is properly secured and at the right height for the official. • Score table set far enough back and chairs back. Keep things out of the substitution zone between benches and score table. Remove unsafe objects from in front of bench and warm-up area. SAFETY IS PARAMOUNT
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Appearance: • Body language says a lot along with the official’s facial expressions. Must give perception of laid back but not uninterested. • Good posture on the stand and on the floor is very important. Don’t be too casual. Don’t ever lean on the post, scorer’s table or stand. • Hands on the hips can look a bit confrontational. Arms folded across chest can look condesending. Don’t be too rigid. Look and feel relaxed.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Appearance: • Be careful and be aware of how you conduct yourself with the people around you. Be friendly but do not attempt to be everybody’s friend. • Grooming is important. Not only neat appearance but pressed shirts and pants, shoes in good condition and polished. Shorts may look too casual. Shirt tucked in. • Look physically fit and up to the task of officiating.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Appearance: • Wear the correct uniform! • And make sure your clothes fit! • White shirt should be white. • Bring an extra shirt and pants in case of an accident. • Extra belt, extra pair of socks (perhaps for partner!). • Have shoe polish, Fabreze and stain stick with you. • Avoid drawing attention to yourself.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Preparation: • Know the rules. • Be up on the current techniques and trends. • Observe matches. • Discuss situations with each other, brainstorm. • Ask questions. • Take notes and journal. • Make the uncomfortable, comfortable by confronting your weaknesses and learning from your mistakes.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Preparation: • Anticipate situations through visualization, realization regarding which rules apply and how to apply them appropriately. • Realize things seem to happen on a regular basis. • Always remain positive. • Exude confidence, but not cockiness because you realize the match isn’t about you. It’s about the players and teams.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Confidence: • Shown through the use of signals: • Clear and distinct (practice in front of a mirror). • Marked by signal separation. • Set the tempo. • Unrushed to avoid creating confusion (what was the call?), • Don’t get sloppy and use the CORRECT signals. eg. Touch vs. Out
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Confidence: • Shown through use of your whistle; Discriminating and distinct whistles include, but are not limited to: • Beckon for serve. • Whistle to end a rally. • Whistle for a substitution. • Whistle for a time-out. • Whistle to call attention to a potential safety hazard. • Whistle to hold up play.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Confidence: • Create a climate of calmness. • Make sure court is a safe place, ready for play. • Follow correct procedures for substitutions/time-outs. • Maintain proper court coverage. • First Referee follows ball. • Second Referee Transitions to the Blocker’s side, monitoring player movement.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Delays: • Always err on the side of safety when dealing with a request to have the ball wiped, the floor toweled, time for a player to tie a shoelace, a contact issue, a player injury (30 seconds to evaluate), even at a time when a coach doesn’t have a time-out left or the other team is on a run or it’s the end of a close game. • Second Referee inspects/checks/verifies these situations to avoid continuing gamesmanship. Would you expect the need for a floor wipe in November? • Intentional delays must be sanctioned. “Hey, wait a minute” is a delaying tactic.
The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Delays: • “Defuse and defend” is part of the Second Referee’s role to “serve and protect” the First Referee. Listen carefully to a coach’s question. • Give a short concise answer but don’t quote the rule to the coach. Rather, interpret the practical application of the rule and end with “let’s play, coach” and then turn the match back to the First Referee to facilitate game flow. • The Second Referee should not permit judgment calls to be continually challenged without warning and finally asking for a card.