Genomics involves the study of genes, gene functions, and entire genomes. • Genomics is the study of genomes (all of an organisms genetic information). • can include the sequencing of the genome • comparisons of genomes within and across species
Gene sequencing is determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes or in genomes. • The genomes of several different organisms have been sequenced. • humans do not have the largest genome • yeast, fruit flies, rats and mice are commonly studied by scientist • there is not a connection to the number of bases an organism has and their relation to different species
The Human Genome Project has sequenced all of the DNA base pairs of human chromosomes. • analyzed DNA from a few people • still working to identify and map human genes (there’s an estimated 30,000 – 40,000 genes in the human genome) – one gene has about 100,000 bases in humans Synthesize: How is genomics related to genes and DNA? Fig. 5.2 - Computer analysis of DNA was necessary in sequencing the human genome
Technology allows the study and comparison of both genes and proteins. • Bioinformatics is the use of computer databases to organize and analyze biological data. • DNA microarrays are used to study the expression of many genes at once. Apply: How is bioinformatics a form of data analysis? Fig. 5.3 - Gene expression can be studied with microarrays. The red dots show genes that are expressed after exposure to a toxic chemical. • Proteomics is the study and comparison of proteins.
DMD N 9.6 Genetic screening can detect genetic disorders. • Genetic screening involves the testing of DNA. • determines risk of havingor passing on a geneticdisorder • used to detect specificgenes or proteins • can detect some genesrelated to an increasedrisk of cancer • can detect some genesknown to cause geneticdisorders Infer: Why might genetic screening raise ethical concerns about privacy? Fig. 6.1 - Genetic screening can be used to detect Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD). Notice the missing bands on the gel (boxes) for three people with DMD as compared with a person without the disorder (N)
9.6 Gene therapy is the replacement of faulty genes. • Gene therapy replaces defective or missing genes, or adds new genes, to treat a disease. Synthesize: How does gene therapy rely on genetic screening? Fig. 6.2 - Dr. Betty Pace, director of the Sickle Cell Disease Research Center at the University of Texas at Dallas, is studying potential gene therapy treatments for sickle cell disease.
Several experimental techniques are used for gene therapy. • genetically engineered viruses used to “infect” a patient’s cells • insert gene to stimulate immune system to attack cancer cells • insert “suicide” genes into cancer cells that activate a drug • Gene therapy has many technical challenges. • - inserting gene into correct cells • - controlling gene expression • - determining effect on other genes