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Learning to Read and Reading to Learn with Informational Text

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  1. Learning to Read and Reading to Learn with Informational Text Dr. Rebecca C. Faulkner University of South Carolina Upstate

  2. Reading and Writing: Tools for Learning • Biology is not plants and animals. • History is not events. • Astronomy is not planets and stars. Instead… They are all languages which describe things. Postman, 1979 2 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  3. Why Informational Text Reading? • The study of content requires the study of vocabulary • Literacy requirements increase from one grade level to the next • Teaching literacy during just one part of the day is not enough to meet the changing societal needs • Different subject matters require different literacy skills 3 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  4. Literacy Demands Have Changed • In World War II, the manual for repairing fighter planes was seven (7) pages long. • In 2008, the manual for repairing fighter planes is seven thousand (7000) pages long. 4 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  5. Additional Studies • The majority of reading and writing that adults do is nonfiction. • Barnes and Noble determined that the overwhelming majority of text being read by males, ages 0-100 is nonfiction • 96% of sites on the web contain nonfiction, informational text (Kamil & Lane, 1998) • 44 million American adults cannot extract a single piece of information from nonfiction text if any inference or background knowledge is required (Levy, 1993)

  6. More Facts • Because of this lack of background knowledge, low income and minority children are even more likely to struggle with informational text (Applebee, Langer, Mullis, Latham and Gentile, 1994) • NAEP scores indicate a slump in fourth grade reading scores and that is, in part, explained by problems with informational text (Chall, Jacobs and Baldwin, 1990)

  7. Supportive Classroom Environments • Print-rich • Numerous displays of student work • Multiple reading and writing materials readily available • Authentic materials • Active participation • Flexible groupings • Appropriate challenges • Mutual respect 7 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  8. Types of Informational or Expository Text • Cause-effect • Comparison-contrast • Enumeration • Sequence • Problem-solution 8 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  9. The supporting details give the causes of a main idea or the supporting details are the results produced by the main idea. Because of… As a result of… In order to… May be due to… Effects of… Therefore… Consequently… For this reason… If…then Thus… Maddox, 2005 Cause and Effect

  10. The supporting details of two or more main ideas indicate how those concepts are similar or different. Different from… Same as… Similar to… As opposed to… Instead of… Although… However… Compared with… As well as… Either…or… Maddox, 2005 Comparison/Contrast

  11. A major idea is supported by a list of details or examples. For instance… For Example… Such as… To illustrate… Most important… In addition… Another… Furthermore… First… Second… Maddox, 2005 Enumeration

  12. A main idea is supported by details that must be in a particular sequence. First… Next… Then… Initially… Before… After… When… Finally… Preceding… Following… Maddox, 2005 Sequence

  13. A problem is presented that requires an action to bring about a solution. Who… What… Action… Solve… Result.. Maddox, 2005 Problem-Solution

  14. Headings Font Sidebars Borders Backgrounds Captions Labels A Tornado Diagrams, charts, graphs, tables Did you know facts Photographs and illustrations Organizational Features Backgrounds

  15. Comprehension Strategies for Informational Text • Making Connections • Predicting • Grouping and Categorizing • Drawing Conclusions • Imaging • Self-monitoring • Evaluating • Applying 15 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  16. Building Comprehension Strategies • Assess Background Knowledge • Cloze Procedure* • KWL • Vocabulary Clusters • Graphic Organizers • Semantic Mapping* • Possible Sentences* • ReQuest* • Read To* • Semantic Webbing • SQ3R* • QAR* • Grand Conversations* 16 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  17. Cloze Procedure Some animals are a big help to other animals. One animal that helps others is the wrasse. The ____ is a fish about four inches long. He is ____ brightly colored. He lives in the South Pacific Ocean. ____is like a doctor to other fish. His office ___ in the rocks called reefs. Many fish come to _____ doctor for help. These fish have animals that live ____their bodies. They would like to have them taken ____. The wrasse eats these tiny animals. He also uses ___ teeth to clean wounds. He helps the fish to get better. 17 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  18. Steps List 10-15 terms defined in the context. Students select two words and either dictate or write them in a sentence. Teacher writes several of the sentences on the board. Students search the text for accuracy and rewrite sentences when necessary Climate, constant, vibrating, contentment, domestic, nestlings, haunts, burrows, territory, chortle The climate is cold. The noise is constant. Domestic animals are wild. A chortle is a laugh. A witch haunts the house. From Motherlove by Virginia Kroll Possible Sentences 18 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  19. ReQuest • Both the teacher and student read the first sentence of the text silently • The teacher closes her book and allows the children to question her/him about the text. The teacher asks the students to clarify unclear questions. • Next the students close their books and the teacher asks them questions • Follow this procedure until you feel that the students have enough information to make a prediction about the text. If the prediction can be justified the students continue on reading silently. If not, continue with the question exchange. 19 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  20. Read to… • Find out questions • Clearly stated in the book • Figure out questions • Those “read between the line types of information” 20 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  21. Semantic Mapping 21 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  22. Survey Question Read Retell Review Look at titles, headings, visual aids, summaries Formulate questions based on preview Use the questions as a guide while you read Retell the information either in partners, small groups or large groups Go over and answer the original questions SQ3R 22 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  23. QAR Question-Answer-Relationships • Right There Questions In the book and easy to find • Think and Search Questions In the book but need to search for it • Author and Me Questions Not in the book Text to Self • On My Own Questions Not in the book Think of these on my own Tuffy Raphael 23 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  24. Grand Conversations • How to Think • QAR • Checking for Understanding • Monitor/Feedback/Assess • The “Oprah” Chat • Adult Talk Sharon Arthur Moore 24 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  25. Text Walk • Text Support • 5-Finger Strategies • 1. Read the title. • Do I know anything about it? • 2.Read the subtitles. • What do I think the connection is between • this and the title? • 3.Look at words that are bolded and • italicized. • What are the connections? • 4.Take a picture walk through the text. • What connections can I make? • 5.Read the first and last paragraphs. • Does this help me with the big picture? cherylsigmon.com 25 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  26. Types of Reading Activities • Guided Reading • Book Clubs • Literature Focus Groups • Literature Circles • Shared Reading • Readers Theater • Read Alouds 26 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  27. Shared Reading Activity A Roaring Return Grizzly bears have made a big, hairy comeback. A government study found that about 765 grizzlies live in Montana. This is more than double the number scientists expected to find. The Montana grizzlies have been threatened since 1975. The study lasted five years. Researchers gathered 34,000 samples of the bears' hair. They found it on trees the bears rubbed against. The samples told researchers a lot about the bears' numbers and health. Now it seems the bears are out of the woods. A Time for Kids. com 27 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  28. Reader’s Theater • http://www.aaronshep.com/stories • Story copyright © 2001 Aaron Shepard. Script copyright © 2003 Aaron Shepard. Scripts in this series are free and may be copied, shared, and performed for any noncommercial purpose, except they may not be posted online without permission. • PREVIEW: On a Christmas Eve of World War I, British and German soldiers lay down their weapons to celebrate the holiday together. • GENRE: Historical fiction CULTURE: European (World War I) THEME: War and peace READERS: 4 READER AGES: 11 and up LENGTH: 12 minutes ROLES: Soldiers 1–4 • NOTES: The Christmas Truce of 1914 is one of the most remarkable incidents of World War I and perhaps of all military history. Starting in some places on Christmas Eve and in others on Christmas Day, the truce covered as much as two-thirds of the British-German front, with thousands of soldiers taking part. Perhaps most remarkably, it grew out of no single initiative but sprang up in each place spontaneously and independently. Nearly everything described here is drawn from first-hand accounts in letters and diaries of the time. Britishisms include using Nowell instead of Noël, and football instead of soccer. For best effect, place SOLDIERS in numerical order, as seen from the audience 28 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  29. Spell It/Learn It/Write It magnificent, Hawaiian, incessant, magma, seamount 29 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  30. Spell It/Learn It/Write It If you asked a hundred people where to find the most magnificent and tranquil tropical paradise on earth, it is a good bet that many would name the Hawaiian Islands. Few of them, however, would realize the extent to which the islands are a product of the pure, raw violence of nature. Incessant volcanic activity over a period of hundreds of thousands of years actually created the islands where no land had been before. A hot spot of magma (fluid rock material) thrust lava through the ocean floor to create a seamount, an undersea volcano. As the lava was cooled by the ocean water, it formed a massive mountain whose tip finally emerged from the sea. Mauna Loa, the most famous of the four active volcanoes in the Hawaiian chain, is really the world’s highest mountain. If measured from the ocean floor to its summit, it towers 56,000 feet, dwarfing its more renowned brother, Mount Everest. 30 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  31. For the Youngest Learners • About Me Books • Environmental Print • Simple Informational Books • ABC Books • Predictable Charts 31 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  32. Pulling it All Together • Storyboards • Souvenirs • Paper Bag Reports • Quilts • Word Maps • Readers Theater • Collages Sharon Arthur Moore 32 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  33. Resources • Aillaud, C. L. (2005). Recess at 20 below. Anchorage, AL: Alaska Northwest Books. • Applegate, M. D., et. al. (2008). The critical reading inventory: Assessing students’ reading and thinking. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. • cherylsigmon.com • Click books. • Dawn Publications. Nevada City, CA. • hubbardscupboard.org • Kalman, B. (2000). What is a community? From A to Z. New York: Crabtree Publishing Co. • Maddox, Rita. rmaddox@edzone.net • Moore, D. W., et. al. (1998). Developing readers & writers in the content areas K-12. New York: Longman. • Moore, S. A. (2004). Conversations in four-blocks classrooms. Greensboro, NC: Carson-Dellosa. 33 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu

  34. Resources Continued • Pike, K., Mumper, J. (2004). Making nonfiction and other informational texts come alive. Boston: Pearson. • Junkel, S., et. al. Learning U. S. geography with the great mail race. Social Studies and the Young Learner, v. 20, n. 2, November/December, 2007, pp. 19-23. • Read write think. reading.org. • robertsabuda.com • Tompkins, G. E. (2004). Literacy for the 21stcentury: Teaching reading and writing in grades 4 through 8. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson • Yellin, D., et. al. (2008). Integrating the language arts. Scottsdale,AZ: Holcomb Hathaway Publishers. 34 Learning to Read and Reading to Learn, rfaulkner@uscupstate.edu