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Simulating Dynamical Features of Escape Panic

Simulating Dynamical Features of Escape Panic

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Simulating Dynamical Features of Escape Panic

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  1. Simulating Dynamical Features of Escape Panic Dirk Helbing, Illés Farkas, and Tamás Vicsek Alex Turek

  2. Stampedes • People trying to move faster than normal • Physical interactions between people • Uncoordinated passing of bottlenecks • Arching/clogging at exits • Dangerous pressures within jammed crowd (up to 4,450 N/m)

  3. Stampedes (cont’d) • Injured/fallen people turn into obstacles • Tendency of “mass behavior,” i.e. herd instinct • Alternative exits are overlooked or underused

  4. Studying Stampedes • Mostly social psychology (mentality of herd behavior) • Helbing et al. attempted to model them using self-driven particle systems • Combine socio-psychological and physical forces

  5. A Single Particle Affected by multiple forces: Desired Velocity and associated acceleration Interaction forces

  6. Desired Velocity Force Helbing et al. specified these parameters: vi0 (Desired velocity) • 0.6 m/s – Relaxed • 1.0 m/s – Normal • 1.5 m/s – Nervous • >1.5 m/s – Panic (transition to uncoordinated bottleneck behavior)

  7. Interaction Forces • Psychological desire to have room between you and another person • Psychological desire to not be too close to the walls F F

  8. Interaction Forces • Body force – counteracting body compression • Sliding friction force – counteracting movement tangential to something you’re in contact with F F F

  9. Measured Effects: Transition to uncoordination due to clogging Arch-like bunching, with avalanche effect when arches break (demo)

  10. Measured Effects: Faster-is-Slower Effect • Attempting to have too high a vi0 • High interpersonal friction becoming the dominant force at a bottleneck • Buildup of forces causing extremely high pressures, and injuries (demo) • Asymmetrical columns can improve outflow and prevent buildup of fatal pressures (demo)

  11. Measured Effects: Faster-is-Slower Effect • Jamming can occur at widening of escape routes (demo)

  12. Measured Effects: Mass Behavior • Individualism vs. Herd behavior • Each pedestrian may either select individual direction, follow avg. direction of his neighbors in a certain radius, or a mixture of both, weighted by panic parameter pi. (demo) Desired direction at time t

  13. Measured Effects: Mass Behavior • Both have drawbacks: • All individualistic means no one will learn from anyone else (demo) • All herding means no exploration for other exits (demo)

  14. Measured Data Leaving time vs. Desired velocity

  15. Measured Data Leaving time for 80 people, given different combinations of individualistic and herding behavior

  16. Questions? Cited Paper: Helbing, Farkas, Vicsek. “Simulating Dynamical Features of Escape Panic”. 2000 http://www.eecs.ucf.edu/~lboloni/Teaching/EEL6938_2007/papers/Helbing-EscapePanic.pdf Presentation by Alex Turek