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Childcare effects

Childcare effects

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Childcare effects

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  1. Childcare effects Cultural context

  2. Child-care thru 3 & peer competencies • Positive responsive caregiver behavior most consistently associated with positive skilled peer interaction • More time in child-care  observed to be more positive and skilled in peer play in child care • Same for child-care with other kids, but caregivers rated these kids as more negative with playmates. • but their observed peer play was not related to the quantity of care. • Child-care not associated with peer competence as rated by mothers or as observed in dyadic play with a friend. • Maternal sensitivity and children's cognitive and language competence predicted peer competence across all settings and informants, suggesting that family and child-care contexts may play different, but complementary roles in the development of early emerging individual differences in peer interaction. • NICHD_Early_Child_Care_Research_Network (2001). "Child care and children's peer interaction at 24 and 36 months: The NICHD study of early child care." Child Development72(5): 1478-1500

  3. Child-Care Effect Sizes Early Child Care and Youth DevelopmentNICHD Early Child Care Research Network • Children (n 1,261) were recruited at birth and assessed at 15, 24, 36, and 54 months. • Exclusive maternal care did not predict child outcomes • Higher quality child care was related to advanced cognitive, language, and preacademic outcomes at every age and better socioemotional and peer outcomes at some ages. • More childcare hours predicted more behavior problems and conflict, according to care providers. • More center-care time was related to higher cognitive and language scores and more problem and fewer prosocial behaviors, according to care providers.

  4. 54 Month Outcomes

  5. Are There Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care? • Parenting was a stronger and more consistent predictor of children’s development than early child-care experience. • But higher quality care predicted higher vocabulary scores and more exposure to center care predicted more teacher-reported externalizing problems. Belsky et al., 2007

  6. Existing behavioral scales: • Attribute behaviors to be “stable deficits” within children and do not consider cultural and contextual influences • behaviors that vary over different settings • Do not tell us when, where and how to intervene • Development of the Adjustment Scales for Preschool Intervention (ASPI) • Specifically developed for low income preschool children • “Language of preschool teachers, rather than psychiatric terms” • 22 developmentally appropriate preschool classroom situations & 2 non-situation specific unusual behavior problems • 144 behavioral items • 122 maladaptive behaviors & 22 adaptive behaviors). • 5 behavioral dimensions: “Phenos” • Externalizing behaviors : aggressive, oppositional & hyperactive/inattentive • Internalizing behaviors: withdrawn/low-energy & socially reticent • Limitations: • Didn’t measure the impact of the multiple contexts within the classroom on outcomes Fernandez

  7. Goal: To examine the individual and interactional influence of the types of behavioral problems (what) and the situational context(s) in which they occur (where) on children’s developmental outcomes • Theoretical Model: • developmental-ecological approach  (bioecological systems theory) • Study 1: • N=3,799 Head Start children • Identified 3 reliable and unique situational dimensions: “Situs” • Structured learning • Peer Interactions • Teacher Interactions • Age and Gender differences • 4 > 5 year olds • Boys > Girls Fernandez

  8. Study 2: • N=747 • Unique relationship between situtypes and school readiness outcomes • Hypotheses: • The situational dimensions would contribute unique variance to the prediction of social and learning outcomes • The combined contribution of both situational and behavioral influences would be greater than either set alone • Findings: • Peer Social Competencies • Play Disconnection, Disruption & Interaction • Classroom Learning Competencies • Most Importantly • Contribution of structured learning to peer social competency & learning outcomes • Phenos moderate the influence of Situsin the prediction of multiple social and learning competencies Fernandez

  9. Limitations/Directions for Future Research • Generalizability across ethnic & linguistic groups • Multisource assessment across additional time periods • Implications for Policy & Practice • Responsive to Surgeon General’s call • ASPI guides intervention, rather than creating diagnostic labels • children are assessed within a “naturalistic context” • Developmental-ecological perspective • Multiple levels of influence (dynamic transaction): • child behavior (ontogenetic) • & classroom situation (microsystem) • Interventions: • Goal shift:“fixing the child”  broader systemic approach • Identification of “high-frequency” challenging situations and behavior problems (Classroom Management & Intervention Strategies) • Professional Development • Curriculum Fernandez