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Tips to Garden Organically

Tips to Garden Organically. Down to Earth Ideas for Good Health and a Safe Environment By Paule Hjertaas, B.Sc. Copyrighted Paule Hjertaas. Permission granted for personal use. Other uses please contact the author at dp.hjertaas(at)sasktel.net.

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Tips to Garden Organically

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  1. Tips to Garden Organically Down to Earth Ideas for Good Health and a Safe Environment By Paule Hjertaas, B.Sc. Copyrighted Paule Hjertaas. Permission granted for personal use. Other uses please contact the author at dp.hjertaas(at)sasktel.net. Photos credits: Paule Hjertaas and the Insect Images, a joint project of the University of Georgia and the USDA Forest Service.http://www.insectimages.org/

  2. Is an approach based on observation and prevention Deals with the causes of problems Pays attention to garden design and garden and plant siting Builds up soil, stability and bio-diversity Starts by using the safest methods Is not simply replacing one chemical by a less toxic product Treated wood of any type has no place in an organic garden (CCA creosote, penta) Organic Gardening

  3. Why not use pesticides? Timing of Seeding and Transplanting Indoor or Greenhouse common problems Organic Fertilizers Beds vs Rows Companion Planting Pest Control Disease Control Weed Control Products Discussion and Demonstrations Topics Covered

  4. Light Length of Frost-free season Soil quality Type (sand, clay,etc) Soil test so you can correct deficiencies Wind Air Circulation Watering Proper pruning and thinning Not to much Nitrogen Factors Affecting Plant Health, Insects and Diseases

  5. Good Husbandry Hygiene Resistant Varieties Cunning Cultivation Methods Encouraging Predators and Parasites Mix and Match Companion Plants Barriers and Traps Direct Action Brought-in Predators and Parasites Organic Pesticides including enzyme cleaner 10 Lines of Defense against Pests and Diseases

  6. Manure Green Manure Compost Supplements Used to build soil As soil amendment As foliar spray (Seaweed emulsion, well finished compost tea) Fertilizers

  7. Complete Organic fertilizer Blend (West Coast Seed) 4 parts seed meal (I.e. flax) 1 part rock phosphate or ½ part bone meal 1 part lime ½ part kelp meal Prepackaged equivalent is All-Purpose Blend (Gaia) or Power Bloom (Gaia) Some catalogs offering organic and natural fertilizers West Coast Seeds William Dam Seeds Territorial T&T Vesey Seeds NIC Ontario Fertilizer Recipe

  8. Seed in August pH 6.6 to 7.5 Needs lots of K and P (bonemeal and greensand) Good drainage Inoculate seeds and only loosen soil a little Cover with ½” compost Next year, each time 10 % flowers, mow to 1 “ tall Spread clippings around garden At end of summer cut to 3-4 “ tall Ass greensand and bonemeal 1-2 times /yr 5 lb/2 lb respectively for 10 ft bed Stand lasts 5 years Choose disease-resistant varieties Can be used to break up compacted subsoil in problem areas Or buy good-quality pellets (OG Aug 06) Alfalfa - best soil builder

  9. My mix: 1/2 peat moss ½ vermiculite 1 handful bonemeal 1 handful rock phosphate 1 handful organic fertilizer Water with Water Seaweed emulsion (and foliar feed) Aquarium water Manure Tea Indoor Seeding 1

  10. Use barriers Spray water Prune and destroy Hand-picking Sticky and other traps (including tree bands) Physical Insect Control

  11. Indoor Seeding 2 • Damping offsolution • Cinnamon on surface Fungus gnat solutions • Yellow sticky trap • Insecticidal Soap • Hypoaspis miles Predatory mite • Steimernema feltiae Parasite • Sand on top of soil

  12. In Cda, registered as leaf shine Acts as anti-feedant and pseudo-steroidal IGR Can prevent swallowing and affects digestion Chitin synthesis inhibitor Generally must be eaten Effectiveness may depend on concentration of azadirachtin Most effective on larval forms on insects with total metamorphosis (caterpillars, including sod webworms, gypsy moth and cutworms, larval beetles. whitefly nymphs), leafminers and mites Neem Oil

  13. Low mammalian toxicity Works slowly Washed off by rain Reentry as soon as spray dries Does not persist in environment Neem Oil (2)

  14. Pour boiling water down the hole Citrus oils Diatomaceous Earth in hole Borax-based bait Repellent garlic spray The tunnels vary tremendously in length and shape between species Most published controls for indoors or for fire ants which we don’t have Some species are useful Ants

  15. Aphids • Row cover • Spray with water or insecticidal soap • Yellow sticky traps or yellow pail with soapy water (flying) • Reflective mulch • Predators • Parasites • New horticultural oils

  16. Asparagus Beetle Control • Plant in full sun, in area where neither asparagus or onions grew recently • Best in sandy loam • Enrich with compost • Neutral pH (low pH increases Fusarium rot) • Well-weeded site • Choose crowns over seeds • Prepare soil properly • Remove asparagus ferns in fall to prevent beetle overwintering • Plant oregano nearby as a living mulch to attract beetle predators

  17. Blister Beetles Hand Pick with gloves • Row Cover • Lime or lime spray or soap and lime spray • Not all bad: Larvae eat grasshoppers

  18. Colorado Potato Beetle • Row Cover • Clean cultivation • Heavy mulching • Plant near green beans, coriander, nasturtium • Vacuuming • Handpick and remove eggs • Diatomaceous earth • .5 % solution of black pepper for adults

  19. Black Pepper • .01% extract for tent caterpillars,European Sawfly and some Ermine Moths • .01-.02 % for adult striped cucumber beetle, larval lily leaf beetles, Viburnum leaf beetles • Also a repellent at .1 % solution • Caution: Watch your eyes!

  20. Imported Cabbage Worm • Row cover • Garlic spray • Btk • Diatomaceous Earth • Plant near mint, sage, rosemary, hyssop

  21. Cabbage(Root) Maggot • 1st generation emerges mid-May-June • 2nd generation possible 4-8 weeks later • * Destroy all diseased material • * Rotate crop • * Control weedy Brassicas • Row Cover • Start inside • Transplant into protective screen cones or use collars • Dust plants with wood ashes, rock phosphate or diatomaceous earth • Encourage predators: Rove beetles, parasitic nematodes,centipedes • Had success digging the root some and scraping off

  22. Carrot Fly, Onion Maggot • Row cover • Crop rotation • Alter Planting dates • Clean cultivation • Rock Phosphate or Diatomaceous Earth around plant base • Nematodes in furrow • Early mulch

  23. Cutworm • Row Cover • Collar or 2 toothpicks • Reduce weeds, especially grasses • 10 day weed free period before emergence of crop • Tack Trap sticky barrier • Mix Btk 12% by weight with wheat bran and grape or apple pomace. Place on soil surface or on boards

  24. Flea Beetles • Row Cover • Insecticidal soap or surfactant • If late in season, harvest plant • Brush onto sticky trap • Lime • Diatomaceous earth • Would black pepper work?

  25. Grasshoppers Natural Control • Eggs eaten by bee flies, blister beetles, ground beetles, crickets and others. • Parasites, predators and Diseases Control • Early Seeding • Trap Strips • Row cover • Safer’s Insecticidal Soap • Bug Juice • Chickens, ducks, etc • Nosema locustrae

  26. Grasshopper Damage in 2003 1 • Yellow Bush Bean – Nugget • Hit hard

  27. Grasshopper Damage in 2003 2 • Green Bean Jade • Less damage

  28. Grasshopper Damage in 2003 3 • From left to right potatoes • Ruby Gold • Kennebec • Eramosa • Purple viking

  29. Grasshopper Damage in 2003 4 • Potato Purple Caribe

  30. Home-made Grasshopper Solution • Bags of leaves covered with Tanglefoot around the garden (left) • The 1930’s drought saw a lot of home-made grasshopper harvesters. They were then dried and used for livestock feed.

  31. Mosquitoes • Clean standing water around home • Cover yourself. Avoid mosquito times. Use a good herbal repellent. • Bti (bacterial larvicide) • Mosquito larvae zapper larvasonic.com

  32. Scale insects and mealybugs • Dormant oil before bud break (trees and shrubs) • Gently Scrape off the Plant or touch with cotton swab soaked with alcohol • Insecticidal soap • Enzyme Cleaner (recipe 2) • Parasites • Predators • Top: scale; bottom: mealybug destroyers eating mealybug

  33. Slugs and Snails • Cultural control: • No objects or refuse on soil • Dry surface between watering • Plant unattractive varieties • Biological: encourage toads • Mechanical: Copper bands

  34. Handpick at night and drop into soapy water Agricultural Lime Pick under boards or other traps (grapefruit rind) during the day Destroy eggs Boiling water or salt Best bait: Crushed slugs Spray plants w ½-1/2 vinegar-water early am. When #s down, every 2 weeks (untested) Traps Safer’s bait Diatomaceous earth 5 % garlic solution provides best barrier and kills 95 % As the clay hardpan improves, the numbers decrease Slugs and Snails

  35. Wasps and Hornets • Eliminate food sources (empty garbage cans frequently, proper fitting lids, no pet food outside) • Add lids and straw to sugary drinks • Traps • Wet Vac at nest • Diatomaceous earth squirted into nest

  36. Sticky traps - usually blue; to some degree can trap out population. Biological controls Application of compost to soil may help. Deadheading and removing infested foliage is an option. Do not shear or stimulate new growth. Prune by cutting plants just above branch crotches and nodes. Insecticidal soap, Horticultural oils and neem oil containing azadirachtin are effective Spinosad Spray a test area first to see if not phytotoxic. All degrade very quickly. Due to overlapping generations, may have to apply several times Thrips

  37. Avoid Ticks • wear clothes that fit tightly around your wrists, ankles and waist. Tuck your shirt into your pants and tuck your pants into your socks. • Discourage animals such as mice, chipmunks and deer that "host" ticks. * Perform tick checks.

  38. Tick Flag (for med.height brush) Staple 1 sq yard piece of white flannel cloth with heavy knap to a stick ( hem one end if used often) Sweep flag ahead. Captured ticks show well. Turn over, pick ticks and drop in plastic container with cap. Will die in 24 hours. Or drop in soapy water. Tick Drag (grass or low brush) 4 ft wide x 6 ft long.Velcro strip one end Add lead weights to lower end Make a clothesline handle through plastic pipe. Drag besides and behind. Trap Ticks

  39. Crows dig up seeds House Sparrows eat seedlings Row cover Netting Mulch? Grackles squish all peas Robins eat Fruits -- timing -- row cover -- netting Birds

  40. Protection Seed early Row cover Fences Trap to kill (e.g. Lee’s trapworks) AC Greenfix (variety of Chickling Vetch - Lathyrus sativus) Gas Ground Squirrel

  41. Meadow Voles • Modify habitat • Mow lawn closely in fall • Remove mulch from perennial beds • Intensive fall trapping program • Traps in vole’s runway system • Bait with apple • Check and rebait daily for at least 5 days or until no more voles captured

  42. Pocket gophers • Build raided beds with 1/2” hardware cloth at bottom • Use wire baskets to pretect tree and shrub roots and bulbs • Dogs and cats deter gophers

  43. Grubs Walk on lawn with long spike sandals in late spring or late summer Basin of soapy water under a light at night Nematodes Milky spore disease for Japanese beetle Lawn insects 1

  44. Lawn Insects 2 • Chinch bugs • Wet vac removes 100% all age classes • Water area with water or soapy water frequently • Id but cover areas with flannel sheet. Bugs will collect on it. Scrape and destroy. • Nematodes • Permanently deepen your soil with good garden loam or compost

  45. Lawn insects 3Webworms • Resistant grass cultivar • Reduce thatch • Correct hot and dry day conditions (water, compaction) • Predators/parasites conservation • Use soap drenches and raking for moderate populations • Btk

  46. Pear Slugs Forceful spraying with water Home recipe 1 Insecticidal soap on larvae Try .01 % black pepper spray Lime sulfur Cankerworms Banding, but may blow in Insecticidal soap sickens Btk Trees and shrubs

  47. Garden Armyworm Beet Armyworm Cabbage Looper Corn Earworm Diamondback Worm European Corn borer Fall Armyworm Orchard Apple maggot Codling Moth Oblique banded Leafroller Omnivorous Leafroller Oriental Fruit Moth Peachtree Borer Grape Berry Borer Available from Natural Insect Control Lures and Traps 1

  48. Home Indian Meal Moth Clothes Moth Fleas Fruit Flies Cluster flies Flies Tree Gypsy Moth Sm. Elm Bark Beetle Traps Lygus Bug and European Sawfly Ash/Lilac Borer Lures and Traps 2

  49. Keep things clean Discard diseased material, don’t compost Mulch Baking Soda Recipe Compost Teas Sprays Competing Organisms Disease Control

  50. Identify and find the source Fungi spread by spores Viruses when sap from infected plant transferred to healthy plant Bacterial D transmitted by insects like leafhoppers, aphids and thrips Prevent stress from over- or under-watering, overfertilization, extreme weather or other. Beware of family connections (i.e petunias, tomatoes, delphiniums are in different families but all host the tobacco mosaic virus) Get rid of infected plant Diseases

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