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A Review of Terminology, Concepts and Definitions for National Standard 1 Guidelines

A Review of Terminology, Concepts and Definitions for National Standard 1 Guidelines

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A Review of Terminology, Concepts and Definitions for National Standard 1 Guidelines

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  1. A Review of Terminology, Concepts and Definitions for National Standard 1 Guidelines December 2009 Todd Gedamke NOAA Fisheries Service Southeast Fisheries Science Center Miami, Florida

  2. A Review of Terminology, Concepts and Definitions for National Standard 1 Guidelines “Making sure we’re talking the same language” December 2009 Todd Gedamke NOAA Fisheries Service Southeast Fisheries Science Center Miami, Florida

  3. Notes: Many of these slides were originally prepared by Jennifer Ise, Deb Lambert, and Mark Millikin (SFD). US Caribbean specific slides were prepared by Bill Arnold (SERO). This presentation provides only a brief summary of the National Standard 1 guidelines. Any discrepancies between this presentation and the final National Standard 1 guidelines as published in the Federal Register on January 16, 2009 (74 FR 3178)will be resolved in favor of the Federal Register. Qs and As for ACL and NS1 guidelines are posted on F/SF website under “ACLs”

  4. Definition FrameworkOFL > ABC > ACL ABC may not exceed OFL. The distance between the OFL and ABC depends on how scientific uncertainty is accounted for in the ABC control rule. The ACL may not exceed the ABC. ABC is one of the fishing level recommendations under MSA section 302(h)(6). Catch in Tons of a Stock Increasing Year 1 Corresponds with MSY Overfishing Limit Acceptable Biological Catch Annual Catch Limit Annual Catch Target Recommended § 600.310 (f)(1)-(7)

  5. Why all the acronyms? What do they mean? OFL MSY ABC ACL ACT Uncertainty Overfishing/Overfished They have specific scientific/legal meanings.

  6. National Standard (NS) 1 • “Conservation and management measures shall prevent overfishing while achieving, on a continuing basis, the optimum yield from each fishery for the United States fishing industry.” (MSA Section 301(a)(1))

  7. Optimum Yield—based on Maximum Sustainable Yield • From section (2)(b)(4)--Purposes of the M-S Act: “To provide for the preparation and implementation, in accordance with national standards, of fishery management plans which will achieve and maintain, on a continuing basis, the optimum yield from each from each fishery; • From section 3(33) of the M-S Act; The term “optimum” with respect to the yield from a fishery, means the amount of fish which— • (A) will provide the greatest overall benefit to the Nation, particularly with respect to food production and recreational opportunities, and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems; • (B) is prescribed as such on the basis of the maximum sustainable yield from the fishery, as reduced by any relevant economic, social, or ecological factor, and • (C) in the case of an overfished fishery, provides for rebuilding to a level consistent with producing maximum sustainable yield in such fishery

  8. Maximum Sustainable Yield • The M-S Act does not define MSY • According to section 600.310(e)(1)(i)(A): MSY is the largest long-term average catch or yield that can be taken from a stock or stock complex under prevailing ecological, environmental conditions and fishery technological characteristics (e.g., gear selectivity), and the distribution of catch among fleets.

  9. Simplified MSY Explanation Note: The following slides are meant to convey the fundamental scientific principles behind MSY and only represents the theoretical ‘ideal’ situation. The relationships have been simplified for illustrative purposes and in practice, the relationships can vary depending on species/fishery.

  10. “Sustainable” – Given constant conditions (e.g. effort, environment) annual catch and numbers of fish/biomass in the stock remains constant.

  11. In Terms of Time

  12. Population Size Effort ~ - Number of Boats - Hours/Days of Fishing Fishing Effort

  13. In Terms of Fishing Effort

  14. Population Size

  15. Population Size Catch per unit effort (CPUE) is also declining More fishing effort = Longer time to catch the same amount Mean Length also declining

  16. Population Size

  17. No effort = No fishing = 0 catch 0

  18. No Fishing  Maximum Biomass the environment can support • Catch = 0 and Yield = 0 • Unfished Biomass is known as ‘Carrying Capacity’ 0

  19. No Fishing  Maximum Biomass the environment can support • Catch = 0 and Yield = 0 • Unfished Biomass is known as ‘Carrying Capacity’ Assume One Fishing Boat Fish Population  Can only replace itself to Carrying Capacity Sustainable Yield  # is species specific Low 0

  20. 0

  21. At first, sustainable yield increases with effort • Removals provide resources (e.g. food, space, holes for lobster) for new individuals (recruits) • Rate of increase is species specific and function of productivity 0

  22. Maximum Sustainable Yield • Sustainable Yield Peaks at MSY • Removals still provide resources (e.g. food, space, holes for lobster) for new individuals (recruits) but, • Yield reaches maximum when population can’t replace itself fast enough (Births ≈ Deaths) • Actual point is species specific and function of productivity 0

  23. Maximum Sustainable Yield Corresponds to a specific amount of: - Fishing Effort (Fmsy) - Biomass (Bmsy) 0

  24. Maximum Sustainable Yield Rules of Thumb @ MSY (approximations): - Fishing Effort (Fmsy) ~ M (natural mortality rate) - Biomass (Bmsy) ~ ½ Unfished Biomass 0

  25. Maximum Sustainable Yield • Declines in Yield after MSY • Population growth can’t keep up with the rate of removals • Resources are available but animals don’t reproduce and/or grow fast enough 0

  26. MSY is a function of Species Productivity (e.g. Birth Rate, Growth, etc.) e.g. Herring e.g. Snappers e.g. Sharks

  27. Definition FrameworkOFL > ABC > ACL ABC may not exceed OFL. The distance between the OFL and ABC depends on how scientific uncertainty is accounted for in the ABC control rule. The ACL may not exceed the ABC. ABC is one of the fishing level recommendations under MSA section 302(h)(6). Catch in Tons of a Stock Increasing Year 1 Corresponds with MSY Overfishing Limit Acceptable Biological Catch Annual Catch Limit Annual Catch Target Recommended § 600.310 (f)(1)-(7)

  28. Catch in Tons of a Stock Increasing

  29. Catch in Tons of a Stock Increasing Overfishing Limit Overfished or Overfishing

  30. SSC Role Council Role Science-Management feedback loop OFL Scientific Uncertainty ACL ACL ≤ ABC ABC Management Uncertainty Science-Management feedback loop ACT Roles in Setting ACLs

  31. Buffer to account for uncertainty (based on probability of exceeding OFL) Catch in Tons of a Stock Increasing Overfished or Overfishing Overfishing Limit

  32. Buffer to account for uncertainty (based on probability of exceeding OFL) Catch in Tons of a Stock Increasing Acceptable Biological Catch Overfished or Overfishing Overfishing Limit

  33. SSC Role Council Role Science-Management feedback loop OFL Scientific Uncertainty ACL ACL ≤ ABC ABC Management Uncertainty Science-Management feedback loop ACT Roles in Setting ACLs

  34. Annual Catch Limit Catch in Tons of a Stock Increasing Acceptable Biological Catch Overfished or Overfishing Overfishing Limit

  35. SSC Role Council Role Science-Management feedback loop OFL Scientific Uncertainty ACL ACL ≤ ABC ABC Management Uncertainty Science-Management feedback loop ACT Roles in Setting ACLs

  36. Annual Catch Target Annual Catch Limit Catch in Tons of a Stock Increasing Acceptable Biological Catch Overfished or Overfishing Overfishing Limit

  37. Annual Catch Limit Catch in Tons of a Stock Increasing Annual Catch Target Acceptable Biological Catch Overfished or Overfishing Overfishing Limit

  38. Annual Catch Limit Catch in Tons of a Stock Increasing How does this relate to the current situation in the US Caribbean? Annual Catch Target Acceptable Biological Catch Overfished or Overfishing Overfishing Limit

  39. Annual Catch Limit Catch in Tons of a Stock Increasing Annual Catch Target Acceptable Biological Catch Overfished or Overfishing Overfishing Limit

  40. Annual Catch Limit X X X Catch in Tons of a Stock All species and species groups in front of CFMC today have been designated as ‘undergoing overfishing’ so by definition: All species and species groups in front of CFMC today have been designated as undergoing overfishing or overfished so by definition: Increasing Annual Catch Target Overfished or Overfishing Acceptable Biological Catch Overfishing Limit

  41. Annual Catch Limit X X X Catch in Tons of a Stock All species and species groups in front of CFMC today have been designated as undergoing overfishing or overfished so by definition: Increasing Annual Catch Target Overfished or Overfishing Some reduction from Catch/Effort (when designated) is required Acceptable Biological Catch Overfishing Limit

  42. Annual Catch Limit Catch in Tons of a Stock Increasing Note: ‘Uncertainty’ buffer is not part of this explanation yet. SFA based on data <2005 Annual Catch Target Overfished or Overfishing Some reduction from Catch/Effort (when designated) is required Acceptable Biological Catch Overfishing Limit

  43. Annual Catch Limit Catch in Tons of a Stock If catch is constant (with constant effort) year after year then = ‘sustainable’ Increasing Annual Catch Target Overfished or Overfishing Acceptable Biological Catch Overfishing Limit

  44. Parrotfish SFA Puerto Rico reported (solid) and adjusted (dashed) landings

  45. Parrotfish SFA Puerto Rico reported (solid) and adjusted (dashed) landings

  46. Parrotfish SFA Puerto Rico reported (solid) and adjusted (dashed) landings For this time period, catch relatively stable and no evidence effort is increasing.

  47. Parrotfish Puerto Rico reported (solid) and adjusted (dashed) landings Using average catch from this time period is pre-SFA regulations. Reductions have likely occurred but no evidence that F has been reduced below Fmsy

  48. Parrotfish Puerto Rico reported (solid) and adjusted (dashed) landings The years used to calculate average catch will determine the appropriate ‘uncertainty scalar’.

  49. Summary of the NS1 Guidelines Related to ACLs and AMs MSA requires: ACLs and AMs to prevent overfishing, ACLs can not exceed fishing level recommendations of SSCs, and ACLs and AMs in all managed fisheries, with 2 exceptions. NS1 guidelines: ACLs and AMs for all stocks and stock complexes in a fishery, unless the 2 MSA exceptions apply, or if a species is in the FMP as an EC species. Clearly account for both scientific and management uncertainty AMs should prevent ACL overages, where possible, and always address overages, if they occur. An optional “ecosystem component” category could allow flexibility in FMPs for greater ecosystem considerations.