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Federalism Timeline

Federalism Timeline

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Federalism Timeline

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  1. Federalism Timeline

  2. 1787-1836: Increased Nationalism • Supreme Court Chief John Marshall • Marbury v. Madison (1804): Judicial Review Federal acts • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819): uphold elastic clause, Judicial Review State acts • Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819): States cannot interfere in contracts • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824): commerce clause covers “every system of commercial intercourse”

  3. Counter-Trend: Nullification • 1798: Jefferson + Madison: Kentucky + Virginia Resolutions • Alien and Sedition Acts • 1814: Hartford Convention: threatened NE secession • 1832: Nullification Crisis • Tariff of Abominations, John C. Calhoun, Force Act

  4. 1836-1860: “Dual Sovereignty” • Chief Roger Taney • Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) • States’ Rights Southern Secession

  5. 1866-1877: Radical Reconstruction • 14th Amendment • Military Occupation • Freedman’s Bureau • Republican governments

  6. 1873-1964: Jim Crow South • Slaughterhouse Cases (1873): 14th only protects US citizenship rights, not State • Incorporation process • 1876: Hayes-Tilden Election • 1896: Plessy v. Ferguson

  7. 1933-1939: New Deal • Economic regulation: at first overturned by Court (intrastate regulation) then upheld

  8. 1954: Brown V. Board • Revival nullification • Alabama nullification resolution federal troops in Little Rock, Arkansas • 1964: Civil Rights Act • 1965: Voting Rights Act • Johnson: Great Society

  9. 1980s: Reagan “New Federalism” • 1995: Clinton/Gingrich “devolution revolution” • 2002: No Child Left Behind

  10. Informal Amendments • Changes to functioning of government/Constitution w/o changing wording • Legislation: court system, new agencies, elastic clause • Executive Action: executive agreements (Senate-less treaties, undeclared war) • Supreme Court Decisions: “constitutional convention in continuous session” • Party Practices: nominations, electoral college, policy role • Custom: Cabinet, senatorial courtesy, no 3rd terms