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Methods of Intervention

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Methods of Intervention

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  1. Methods of Intervention Psychodynamic Approach ‘The Past in the Present’ presented by Ali Harrison

  2. Social Work Theory and Interventions • Psycho (of the mind) dynamic (movement) • Theory for understanding what is going on in a case (ie Ego development -Freud, or strength of Attachment- Bowlby) • Methods of Intervention which come from that understanding (i.e working with ego defences or life story work, play therapy, inner child work, exploring subpersonalities etc)

  3. Aim of Psychodynamic workfor the service user to become a fully functioning person who has more control over what they do, and is not driven by unresolved, unconscious past events.

  4. Focuses on the inner world of the client and that which is hidden from consciousness ‘Our behaviour, including what we say do and think, is caused by experiences memories and needs many of which, we are not consciously aware’ Freud

  5. Psychodynamic Approach is used ..retrospectively to understand current problems in parenting and behaviour,proactively to prevent future damage, to make sense of the clients internal world, to give insight and to build self confidence and ego strength

  6. Deals with the emotional inside of the clientUnderstands current behaviour in terms of past experiencesProblems in key relationships in childhood can effect development and lead to current problems in relationships or behaviour

  7. Psychodynamic WritersSigmund and AnnaFreud/Melanie Klein, Margaret Mahler, Donald Winnicott, John Bowlby, Michael RutterJuliet Mitchell Alice Miller Virgina Axaline Micheal JacobsEric BurnEric Erikson

  8. InterventionUsing the relationship workers meet emotional and developmental needs of the client through support, nurturing, re-parenting, containment and insight

  9. Making sense allows people to gain control of the meaning of their experiences, changing the meaning, brings about changes in behaviour. This creates a more robust, mature and independent personality which will be more socially competent and able to handle relationships more effectively

  10. The emphases is on the clients capacity for adaptation and problem solving within the personality.This development takes place within the central framework of the relationship between the client and the worker

  11. FreudPersonality Theoryunderstanding ego developmentand Ego defencesworking in the relationship with transference and countertransference

  12. Personality TheorySuper ego Ego Id

  13. Idinstinctual drives of the child for survival, wants, urges,needsimpulses for sex and aggressionlargely unconscious

  14. Super egoInternalised voice of authority (parent, teachers, school, church etc)‘shoulds’, ‘ought to’, rules, guilt, moral principles, teachingCan be underdeveloped or too rigid

  15. EgoThe ‘thinking’ reality centre which mediates between the unconscious tension between the id and superego, causing anxiety and dis-equilibrium in the psyche

  16. Tension in Egofrom internal and external pressures from others and societyResulting anxiety is dealt with by employing defence mechanisms(Anna Freud)

  17. Building Ego strength or dismantling Ego Defences

  18. The work involves helping a client find a way through to their true feelings that the defences mask

  19. Ego Defence MechanismsSplitting, Idealisation and Projection (primitive defences) Reaction Formation (defences originating in toddlerhood))Denial and Repression Sublimation, Rationalisation and Displacement Regression and Fixation

  20. Ego Defence Mechanisms Splitting and Denial (a primitive defence formed in early infancy described by Klein.) Anxiety in infant caused by baby's merged identity with mother, who is sometimes present and soothing other times absent and frustrating. Good breast/bad breast and eventual object consistency

  21. Ego Defence MechanismsRepressionthreatening or painful thoughts and feelings are pushed out of conscious awareness(i.e. early sexual abuse)

  22. Ego Defence MechanismsDisplacementanxiety is discharged by shifting energy to a safer or closer target(i.e. intimidation of a meek father at work, can cause acting out at home in domestic violence and /or child abuse)

  23. Ego Defence MechanismsSublimationredirecting aggressive or sexual energy into creative or athletic activity

  24. Ego Defence MechanismsRegression and FixationReverting to a form of behaviour the client has ‘outgrown’, to an earlier stage of development when the demands were not so great.(i.e. thumb sucking and smoking are ‘oral phase’ activities)Or failing to move on in developmental stages (ie anorexia)

  25. Ego Defence MechanismsReaction Formationexaggerated feelings are expressed, opposite to what is truly being felt(ie someone being extremely off hand when what they feel is affection they cannot risk expressing)

  26. Exercises on Ego DefencesDiscuss with your partner times when you employ any of the ego defences described, what effect do they have in your life?

  27. Exercises in Ego DefencesThink about a client you are working with, what are the primary defences being used by this client, how is that impacting on their ability to function?Is it useful to challenge this ego defence or is ego strengthening work required?

  28. Human Growth and Development Theory (understanding Regression and Fixation)Freud-Psychosexual developmentErikson -Lifespan Development PsychologyKlein, Mahler and Winnicott-Object RelationsBowlby- Attachment Theory

  29. Linear and nested personality developmentFreud and Eriksonlinear developmentbirth--------------------------------death developmental stages

  30. Freud’s Psychosexual Stagesmaturity dependant on successful completion of the one before, regression to earlier stages in times of stressOralAnalPhallic (Oedipal)LatencyGenital

  31. Eric Erikson Life span development stages Whole life cycle as a series of tasks in which opposing tensions must be brought into some sort of equilibrium.Erikson places individual development in family, social and cultural context

  32. Eriksons Lifespan Development Stages

  33. Basic Trust versus Mistrust 0-12 monthsTrust that ones basic needs will be met

  34. Autonomy versus Shame and Guilt 1-6 yearsEstablishing autonomy and self control without a loss of self esteem

  35. Initiative versus Guilt 6-10yearshaving the initiative to strive for goals which will fulfil personal potential and give a sense of purpose

  36. Industry versus Inferiority 10-14 yearsCompetence - acquisition of skills needed for full and productive involvement in society

  37. Identity versus Role Confusion 14-20 yearsIdentity- developing an integrated self consept and a coherent set of values and beliefs

  38. Intimacy versus Isolation20-35 yearsIntimacy the establishment of close committed relationships with others

  39. Generativity versus Stagnation 35-65 yearsGenerativity - the creation of a lasting contribution that will extend beyond ones own lifetime

  40. Integrity versus Despair 65+Integrity- acceptance and satisfaction with ones life, and an understanding of its place as part of a wider humanity

  41. References Joyce Lishman ‘A handbook of theory for Practice Teachers in Social Work’ Chapter 2and Micheal Jacobs’The Presenting Past’

  42. Nested or layered developmental stagesinner infantinner child inner adolescentinner young adultetcReference Firman and Gila ‘Psychosynthesis Psychology of Spirit’

  43. We carry the wounds of earlier stages which can unconsciously impact on relationships in the presenti.e issues of dependency and trust………Object Relations how the infant constructs his internal world

  44. The ‘Maternal care system’ acts as the External Unifying Centre for the baby, being responsive, empathic, soothing, holding and stroking thereby ‘transforming his environment’

  45. as the social worker acts for the chaotic and disorganised client • By providing empathic listening, responding appropriately to need, holding the client psychologically in times of distress, building self esteem and a sense of personal effectiveness and worth…. • The relationship is the main tool of intervention in Psycho-dynamic casework

  46. Early Childhood Development Revision • The Jurassic Park World of the new born baby….. • No boundaries • no concept of time • fragmented experiences • instinctual drives to survive

  47. Melanie Klein • Breasts good and bad

  48. Margaret Mahler • 0-2 Autism • 2-6 months Symbiosis • 6-10 Hatching • 10-16 months Practising • 16-24 months Reappoachment • 24-36 Object Consistancy