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TECHNOLOGY MILESTONES FROM THE CHEMIST’S VIEW PowerPoint Presentation
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TECHNOLOGY MILESTONES FROM THE CHEMIST’S VIEW

TECHNOLOGY MILESTONES FROM THE CHEMIST’S VIEW

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TECHNOLOGY MILESTONES FROM THE CHEMIST’S VIEW

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  1. I. ENERGY AND TRANSPORTATION Chemists and chemical engineers have made many contributions to energy and transportation which allow us to power our lives on land , through air and in space. In the 19th century people heated their homes with wood or coal, used kerosene lanterns or candles for illumination, and traveled by railroad, steamboat, horse or on foot. As demand for energy has increased over the last two centuries, chemistry has developed and improved power sources such as liquid fuel, batteries, and many novel energy-conversion technologies. Advances in chemistry have also fueled the transportation revolution, contributing new and improved materials to automobiles, airplanes, space vehicles, and roadways. By extracting metals, minerals, and motor fuels from natural resources and by creating entirely new materials, chemistry has revolutionized our way of life. TECHNOLOGY MILESTONES FROM THE CHEMIST’S VIEW I.1. Energy Sources Utilization of coal as an energy source Petroleum exploration and production Nuclear energy Alternative sources I.2. Electrical Energy Storage and Portable Power Sources Single-use batteries Rechargeable batteries I.3. Materials for Roadways and Bridges Concrete Asphalt Metals and alloys Maintenance and repair technology I.4. Petrochemical Fuels Production of gasoline from crude oil Fuel additives Catalytic converters I.5. Automotive Vehicles Advanced materials for comfort and safety Plastic components Tire technology I.6. Aeronautics Hot-air balloons Helium Rocket fuel Construction materials for aircrafts and rockets

  2. I. ENERGY AND TRANSPORTATION Chronology 1882 First coal-fired electric generating station supplies household electricity. 1884 The German Gottlieb Daimler builds the first gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, piston-engine car. 1902 Asphalt pavement for roads is made from processing crude oil. 1913 Thermal cracking (breaking of long-chained molecules by heat) of hydrocarbons increases gasoline production from petroleum. 1921 Thomas Midgley, Jr. uses tetraethyl lead as an antiknock additive in gasoline. 1936The French Eugene Houdry develops the catalytic cracking of petroleum to produce high-octane gasoline. 1947 The American B. F. Goodrich firm introduces the first tubeless tires. 1949 Eveready Battery Co. miniaturizes the alkaline battery. 1954 First silicon-based solar battery is developed at Bell Labs. 1958 Boeing 707 jet airliners debut and begin to transform air transport. 1970s Unleaded fuels introduced; the phase-out of lead in gas begins. 1975 Catalytic converters are introduced in many automobiles. 1980-1990s Lithium-ion batteries are popular for cellular phones and laptop computers. 1981 The Columbia Space Shuttle becomes the world’s first reusable spacecraft. Coal-fired electric generating station Daimler automotive on stamp Building road with asphalt pavement Thomas Midgley Jr. Eugene Houdry with the model of the catalytic converter Former poster of the Goodrich tubeless tire The first silicon-based solar battery Boeing 707 Principle of operation of catalytic converters Principle of operation of the lithium-ion battery Space shuttles