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Foundations of Special Education

Foundations of Special Education

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Foundations of Special Education

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  1. Foundations of Special Education Dr. Thomas G. Ryan 2004

  2. What is Special Education? • Special Education: Specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs and abilities of exceptional students. • Special Education is relatively new. • Historically, people with disabilities were often placed in hospitals, asylums, or other institutions that provided little, if any, education.

  3. For instance, Ancient Greece • Physicians • Hippocrates • Mental Disorders • Mania • Melancholia • Phrenitis • Hysteria

  4. Ancient Greece - Praxis • Physicians • Balance of Humors • Black bile = Melancholia • Yellow bile = anxieties • Blood = mood swings • Phlegm = ? • Treatment • massage / diet /exercise

  5. Greece • Philosophers – Apply knowledge • Socrates "Know thyself" Epistemology • Revelation – insight, intuition • Rationalism – logic, if x then y • Empiricism – science of computation

  6. Socrates – Teacher/Philosopher

  7. Greek Philosophers • Socrates "Know thyself" • Treatment = Knowledge • Reason to understand • Plato -- "Forms" - Emotions • Knowledge (reason) • Treatment = • Education /Insight of psyche or mind (Socratic method) • "Sophronesterim" (house of moderation)

  8. Philosophers & History • Aristotle - "Empiricism" • Hot bile = suicide and sexual impulse • Rise of the Roman Empire - Social • Greek decline ( "Post Aristotle" ) • Epicurus • Cynics • Skepticism • Stoicism – no emotion • Disability – not able • Cicero • Galen

  9. 3rd to the 17th Century • "Dark Ages“ - Germanic tribes bring downfall of roman empire • Middle Ages - Renaissance and Reformation – Rebirth • High Middle Ages - Bonadventure (1221-1274) • Soul and body distinct • Soul w/ body knows external world • Soul also knows spiritual world • Aquinas (1225-1275)

  10. High Middle Ages • RogerBacon (1214-1292) Bartholomaeus Angelicus (1275) • "Madness is infection of the foremost cell of the head... melancholy is the infection of the middle cell of the the beginning the patient's head be shaven, and washed in lukewarm vinegar, and that he be kept or bound in a dark place... diverse shapes of faces and semblance of painting shall not be shewed tofore him...he shall be let of blood in a vain in the forehead, and bled as much as will fill an egg-shell... with ointments and balming men shall labour to bring him asleep...the headthat is shaven shall be plastered with lungs of swine... or of a sheep...if the woodeness [wildness] dureth three days without sleep, there is no hope of recovery." {Book VII, De Proprietatibus Rerum}

  11. Bacon, Roger (1214?-1294), English Scholastic philosopher and scientist, one of the most influential teachers of the 13th century Teacher/Philosopher

  12. Reformation • Treatment - First asylum in Spain 1408/9 Valencia • Moving into the scientific revolution • 1533 Montaigne - 1600 Gilbert publishes de Magnate - 1609 Galileo • 1610 Alonso Salagner = witch trials without torture • 1616 Harvey and blood circulation • mid late 1600's outlaw burning of witches

  13. Jean Marc Gaspard • French physician and educator Jean Marc Gaspard Itard was one of the earliest teachers to argue that special teaching methods could be effective in educating disabled children. In 1801 Itard discovered a young boy roaming wild in the woods of France. Between 1801 and 1805 Itard used systematic techniques to teach the boy, named Victor, how to communicate with others and how to perform daily living skills, such as dressing himself.

  14. Edouard Séguin • In 1848 French psychologist Edouard Séguin, who had studied with Itard, immigrated to the United States and developed several influential guidelines for educating children with special needs. Séguin’s education programs stressed the importance of developing independence and self-reliance in disabled students by presenting them with a combination of physical and intellectual tasks.

  15. In 1816 American minister and educator Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet established the first public school for deaf students in the United States. 1816

  16. 1829 • The first school for blind students in the United States was founded in 1829 in Boston by American physician John Dix Fisher. The school is known today as Perkins School for the Blind and is located in Watertown, Massachusetts. Special education classes within regular school programs began at the beginning of the 20th century.

  17. Canadian educator instrumental in establishing general free education in Canada. The public school system of Ontario was established on the basis of Ryerson's Report (1846), which he published after studying the British and Continental school systems. By 1871 the goal of general free education had been reached in Upper Canada (Ontario). Ryerson, Adolphus Egerton (1803-1882),

  18. Helen Keller – A. Graham Bell • In 1882, a baby girl caught a fever that was so fierce she nearly died. She survived, but the fever left its mark. She could no longer see or hear. Helen Keller was born on June 27, 1880 in Alabama, the daughter of a newspaper editor. There has never been a precise diagnosis of the type and cause of the fever that struck Helen (Royal National Institute for the blind, 1995). The Kellers sought advice and remedies for Helen. As she approached the age of 7, they visited Alexander Graham Bell in Washington, DC. An activist in deaf education, Bell recommended they send Helen to the Perkins School for the Blind in Boston. A recent graduate of the school, Anne Sullivan, also known as Annie, was offered to tutor Helen. In March 1887, Annie arrived in Tuscumbia, Alabama to live with the Kellers as governess – she graduated!

  19. Hellen Keller

  20. Radcliffe did not want her! • While still at Radcliffe College, Helen began her writing career which continued for 50 years. Helen proved to be a remarkable scholar. She had phenomenal memory as well as shy determination to succeed. While she was still at college she wrote “The Story of my Life” which was an immediate success (“Tragedy to Triumph,” no date). She went on to write 11 other books and numerous articles on blindness, deafness, social issues and women’s rights. She graduated cum laude in 1904.

  21. keller/life.html • In 1921, the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) was organized. Helen was invited to be spokesperson for the organization. She traveled extensively giving speeches and raising funds for the blind (R.N.I B, 2001). She became a suffragette and a socialist, demanding equal rights for women and working-class people. • Helen Keller lived on into retirement. She often walked the grounds of Arcan Ridge and could be seen talking to herself with her fingers (R.N.I.B, 2001). She died in the afternoon of June 1, 1968, just before her 88th birthday.

  22. Progressive Movement in Education – 1920’s • Many would call the decade of the American 1920s the decade of the Progressive Movement in Education. Progressive education espoused an experiential philosophy; an education derived more from the student than from the teacher. It was a student-driven, student-centered concept of education that attempted to foster the precarious balance between individualism and collectivism. It was a grand and idealistic experiment, indeed. Leading this pedagogical foray was the unassuming, bespectacled former school teacher, John Dewey. It may be argued that Dewey single-handedly moved notions of progressive education into the educational forefront often with both criticism and cynicism.

  23. John Dewey – Philosopher/Teacher

  24. Skinner - Behaviour • Burrhus Frederick (“Fred”) Skinner was born on March 20, 1904 in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. He completed his undergraduate degree in English at Hamilton College in Clinton, New York. Upon graduation Fred attempted to write a novel with little success and decided to pursue studies in Psychology where he was introduced to Watson’s book Behaviorism and found himself intrigued with an empirical, scientific approach. After reading Bertrand Russell’s book Philosophy (1927) with his references to mentalistic terms in behavioristic ways, Skinner referred to himself becoming an “instant behaviorist” (Skinner, 1988). In his readings he also became interested in the work of the Russian Physiologist Ivan Pavlov who was studying conditioned reflexes at the time.

  25. B.F. Skinner - Behaviorist

  26. APA award - Skinner • At the American Psychological Association (APA) annual conference in August, 1990 he received an unprecedented award of “Citation for Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology”. He died a few days later at the age of 86 on August 18, 1990.

  27. Universal Declaration of Human Rights - 1948 • On December 10, 1948, the international community adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which recognized the common inherent dignity and equal and inalienable rights of all people around the world. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was prepared under the chairmanship of former U.S. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. The document was passed unanimously by the UN General Assembly in December 1948.

  28. Article 26 – 1948 – U.N. • Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. • Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. • Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children

  29. Blackboard Jungle – 1950’s • The movie Blackboard Jungle is hard hitting and probably a better representation of juvenile delinquency in the nineteen fifties than Rebel Without A Cause or The Wild One. The story revolves around an idealistic teacher on his first job in a tough urban all male high school.  The teacher, Richard Dadier, is played by Glenn Ford who performs the role almost too passively.  He is surrounded by apathetic teachers and a principle (Mr. Warneke, played by John Hoyt) who has trouble admitting that the school has discipline problems. The movie is based on the novel The Blackboard Jungle by Evan Hunter.

  30. Teacher – Student Relations

  31. The Report of the Provincial Committee on Aims and Objectives of Education in the Schools of Ontario– Hall-Dennis 1968 - Purpose • to identify the needs of the child as a person and as a member of society • to set forth the aims of education for the educational system of the Province • to outline objectives of the curriculum for children in the age groups presently designated as Kindergarten, Primary and Junior Divisions • to propose means by which these aims and objectives may be achieved • to submit a report for the consideration of the Minister of Education.

  32. Jerome Bruener • 1961 • Jerome Bruner, one of the architects of Head Start, publishes TheProcess of Education • This year, Harvard psychology professor Jerome Bruner publishes The Process of Education, a book that would be reprinted many times during the decade and would influence a whole generation of educators in the Canada and elsewhere. • Bruner divides the process of education into four basic parts: structure, readiness for learning, intuitive thinking, and motives for learning. These form the major chapter headings for the book.

  33. Benjamin Bloom publishes Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals • 1965, Benjamin Bloom publishes a book that would largely influence curriculum theory and practice for many years. Indeed, the book was published several times and translated into several languages, and it was read in faculties of education, teacher training programs and schools all over the world. The book influenced almost every aspect of formal education, from the way curricula were designed at national and provincial ministries of education to the way teachers were evaluating student performance at the classroom level. It is well known that Bloom and his associates identified three main domains of educational goals: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. What is not well known is the history that led to the development of this framework.

  34. Indian Control of Indian Education - 1972 • In 1972, the Chiefs of the National Indian Brotherhood adopted the first written policy on Indian education, entitled Indian Control of Indian Education. It was presented to MinisterJean Chretien, of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, onDecember 21, 1972. This policy was written as a comprehensive position paper that articulated principles of local control, parental responsibility and culturally based curriculum. "We want education to provide the setting in which our children can develop the fundamental attitudes and values which have an honoured place in Indian tradition and culture." (National Indian Brotherhood, 1972, p.2)

  35. Parti Québecois - 1977 • Parti Québecois enacts Bill 101, restricting access to an education in English • Designed to preserve and enhance the French language in the province of Québec, Bill 101 was passed into law on August 26, 1977, continuing the centuries-long quest to make Canada’s largely francophone province as French as possible.

  36. Phase 1 1980-1991 • Amendments to the Education Act, (Revised Statutes of Ontario, 1980; more commonly referred to as Bill 82) brought into place mandatory instead of permissive requirements for special education, including a committee procedure for determining the eligibility of students for special education placement

  37. 1980 Act • The 1980 Act was also innovative in mandating universal access, and a right of appeal provision whereby parents could appeal the designation of their child as "exceptional" and the proposed educational placement for the child.

  38. Court Challenges – 1980’s • The 1980 Act included a provision for parental choice, with an appeals and Tribunals hearing procedure to deal with disputes between the board and parents, but the system was biased in over-representing the School Board on the Appeal hearing panel, and the only issues open to dispute were the designation as exceptional and the placement of the student. Parents could not, and still cannot, appeal the nature and content of the programs or services provided by the school within the placement (Metcalf, 1987). In Booth's (2000) terms, the Act provided for access to but not participation in educational programs.

  39. Fully Implemented by 1985 • This was challenged in the Ontario Court of Appeal (Dolmage v. Muskoka Board of Education and the Ministry of Education, (1985), 49 O.R. (2d) 546 (Div. Ct.)) in which the parents lost, but not without an obiter dictum statement in the judgment that led to further Tribunal hearings and challenges in the courts (Barger v. North York Board of Education, 27th June, 1984, Regional Special Education Tribunal; Ormerod v. Wentworth (County) Board of Education, 5 June 1987,Regional Special Education Tribunal; Hysert v. Carleton Board of Education, 8752, Ont. H.C.) that loosened the restrictive qualities of the right of appeal provision.

  40. Parents fight for Inclusion! • The Education Act (R.S.O.1980) was fully implemented in 1985 after a phase-in period, concurrent with the repatriation of the Canadian Constitution to Ottawa from Westminster, and the establishment of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The latter contains an equity clause, 15, prohibiting discrimination on the basis of, among other things, disability. Since 1985, the courts have been the major recourse for parents who had disputes about the provisions supplied to their children with disabilities. Foremost among these have been claims for inclusive educational placements, with appropriate programs and support services, such as the landmark case heard at the Supreme Court of Canada (Eaton v.Brant County, SCC #24668, 7 Feb. 1997).Other events in the 80’s included new perspectives. For Instance….....

  41. All I Really Needed to Know I Learned in Kindergarten - 1986 • Robert Fulghum • When Robert Fulghum’s book arrived in bookstores in 1986 it was the beginning of a publishing phenomenon not unlike the Harry Potter craze today. His humorous, gentle stories convey a clear message that it is important to form a moral code and stick to it. The short, simple collection of random but careful thoughts caught the public’s imagination and surged to the top of the bestseller lists. The book and its sequels have sold 15 million copies in over 90 countries. Robert Fulghum’s uncommon ability to communicate his wisdom, which is primarily basic common sense, has made him a very wealthy man.

  42. All I Really Needed to Know I Learned in Kindergarten - 1986 • Share everything. • Play fair. • Don’t hit people. • Put things back where you found them. • Clean up your own mess. • Don’t take things that aren’t yours. • Say you’re sorry when you hurt somebody. • Wash your hands before you eat. • Flush. • Warm cookies and milk are good for you. • Live a balanced life—learn some and think some and draw and paint and sing and dance and play and work every day some. • Take a nap every afternoon. • When you go out into the world, watch out for traffic, hold hands, and stick together. • Be aware of wonder….

  43. Changes 1991-1995 Ontario • Under a left-leaning provincial government , elected on an equity and social justice platform, the out-of-court settlement of one such court case led to a statement by the Ministry of Education in June 1994, that was the first official indication that Ontario schools should consider inclusion; “ the integration of exceptional pupils into local community classrooms should be the norm in Ontario, wherever possible, when such a placement meets the pupil's needs and where it is according to parental choice...We recognize that an integrated setting will not be appropriate for every child" (Memorandum to Directors, Superintendents, and Principals, June 9th 1994).

  44. Ontario Education - Tensions • In effect, the Ontario Education Act, as amended in 1980, promoted categorical identification, programs that were at the discretion of the school system, and parental choice that was limited to the two technicalities, the categorical designation of the student as exceptional, and the placement of that student. Both of these could be stated in terms such as; "the student has a learning disability and will be placed in a class for students with learning disabilities". The parents' rights to challenge the decision recommended by the school board were limited to that wording and not to any of the programs and services available in that classroom.

  45. MOE inflexible! • Special education programs and services appeared in the Act only as definitions and were not mandatory, leaving their implementation to the discretion of the school board. Consequently, the provisions in the I.E.P. including such services as speech training and counseling, and personnel such as interpreters, social workers and consultants to teachers for hearing impairment, low vision and behavioral difficulties could not be challenged by parents through appeals.

  46. Labels, Categories – Past era • The twelve categories of disability, under five headings (intellectual, communicational, behavioral, physical and multiple) were defined by the Ministry, (Handbook for Special Education, 1984) and their use was required during annual school board reports of category counts, even though the prevailing government had made a major shift in recognizing the rights of parents to have their child placed in inclusive settings. The categories continue to this day to be the criteria used to allocate special educational resource supplements to the school systems in Ontario.

  47. 1990,s, 1995 Election P.C. • The Harris government was elected on a platform of lowered taxes, school reform and greater public accountability. It represents a major swing to the right compared with earlier governments, and is committed to balanced budgets, increased competition and privatization, devolution of control to local school councils of elected parents, while retaining resource allocation at the centre with stringent auditing.

  48. Mike Harris looks tough, talks tough and for nearly seven years has run a tough government in Ontario that has influenced cost-cutting governments across the country. Mike Harris – North Bay to ?

  49. Turbulence – 1995 to present! • Inclusive classrooms have become the norm for fiscal rather than moral reasons. Ontario teacher morale is at an all time low. Teachers are leaving the profession in significant numbers fueled in part by an early retirement incentive, but also by a professional perspective that is at odds with the paradigm shift to the right. They do not know how to cope with the multiple innovations being demanded of them. In 1997 eight major reform initiatives were implemented that touched every corner of the teaching profession, and in the Fall of 1998 the province's teachers staged an illegal work stoppage, illegal since they walked out on their contract with their employers, the school boards.

  50. "We want to make sure that money is focused on the priorities we share -- and the results we need. Let’s deliver excellence for all in our public schools...the health care we need...clean, safe communities that work."Dalton McGuinty Liberals take root!