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2.3 Mughal Empire in India
Mughal Empire • Babur controls northern India • Akbar (Babur’s grandson) greatest Mughal leader • Believes king must be aggressive to avoid being conquered • Continued Muslim tradition of religious tolerance • Married Hindu princesses & allowed them to practice Hinduism • Abolishes religious taxes • Hires Jesuit priest to educate son • All cultures could rise to power in government
Mughal Empire • Has smart tax policy • Tax is proportionate to value of crops • Result = more people paid taxes because it is fair • Gave land to government officials • Took back land after official died • What is the impact of this? • Officials would not work land since it would not stay in their family after death
Mughal Empire • Persian = language of high culture • Hindi = language of common citizen • Urdu = language spoken by the soldiers • Blend of Arabic, Persian, & Hindi • Currently the official language of Pakistan • Jahangir and Nur Jahan rule after Akbar • Jahangir = son of Akbar; Nur Jahan = wife • Nur Jahan rules most of Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire • Nur Jahan favors a son to be future ruler but son rebels against Jahangir; son removed • Rebellious son follows Sikh (pronounced “seek”) religion • Sikhs = non-violent and independent • Mughals target Sikhs for sheltering rebellious son • Shah Jahan takes power of Mughal Empire • Assassinates all possible rivals • Shah Jahan’s wife dies while giving birth to 14th child • Builds Taj Mahal as tomb for her
Taj Mahal • Taj Mahal considered one of the most beautiful buildings in the world • Takes 22 years to build • Citizens suffer due to construction of Taj Mahal • Famine • Irrigation systems not constructed to help farmers • Roads & tools not available to farmers • Taxes consistently raised to pay for construction of Taj Mahal
Aurangzeb • Son of Shah Jahan • Executes older brother • Puts father in jail • Rigidly enforces Islamic law • Outlaws drinking, gambling, & other vices • Censors citizens and polices prayer • Reinstates non-Muslim tax • Removes Hindus from government • Wars cause downfall of empire because of high taxes needed to pay for costs