“Social change is any significant modification or transformation of social structures and sociocultural processes over time” (p. 366).
Functional theory sees change as natural and evolutionary. Cultures simply need to adapt in healthy ways to the change.
Conflict perspective argues that change is the result of victories by vested interests, “stakes in either maintaining or transforming the status quo” (p. 379).
“Collective behavior is nonroutine action by an emotionally aroused gathering of people who face an ambiguous situation (p. 366); a social movement is an ongoing, goal-directed effort to change social institutions from the outside” (p. 367).
“Relative-deprivation theory argues that social movements arise when people experience an intolerable gap between their rewards and their expectations” (p. 368).
“Resource mobilization theory suggests that social movements develop when individuals who experience deprivation can garner the resources they need to mobilize for action” (p. 369).
“Mobilization is the process by which a unit gains significantly in the control of assets it did not previously control” (p. 372).
Micromobilization is the recruitment of individual adherents; bloc-mobilization is the recruitment of supportive organizations.
“Frame alignment is a strategy of micro-mobilization in which SMOs attract individual new recruits” (p. 373).
Four tactics of frame alignment:1. Frame bridging targets people with similar interests.2. Frame amplification is the equivalent of consciousness raising.3. Frame extension extends the frame of the movement to encompass more problems.4. Frame transformation requires convincing individuals that the way they have seen thing is wrong, the new way is correct (like religious conversion).
“A countermovement seeks to reverse or resist change advocated by a social movement” (p. 374).