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Classical Database Development Methodology

Classical Database Development Methodology

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Classical Database Development Methodology

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  1. Classical Database Development Methodology

  2. Classical Database Development Methodology • Area of Application • Perspective • Work-Processes • Guidelines for Work-Processes in the development of the application

  3. Area of Application: • Development of medium to large size data intensive applications • Data intensive: • lots of data • little processing • insertions, deletions, updates, • queries • What is medium to large? • Small is: • well-defined project • short development time • no long-term maintenance • few people; little turnover • no critical resources • small risk of failure • small cost of failure • Why only medium to large? • the methodology is an insurance policy • cost of using methodology is high

  4. Perspective: • Business process is well-designed • Documents are known • Tasks are known • System boundary is known • One database schema unifying all views can be designed • difficult: interests, goals, power, politics • problems with the methodology? • problems with the organization? • or-gan-i-za-tion: “an entity created to pursue a shared set of goals”

  5. Management Work-processes: • Business process (re-)design • Analysis • Specification • Design • Implementation • Testing • Operation • Maintenance

  6. Guidelines for work-processes: • Purpose: what we do • Input: what we start with • Output: what we end with • Tool: what we use • Technique: how we use it • Organization: who does what

  7. analysis specification design implementation test work-process time Time and Management • waterfall model; this is not prototyping • iteration necessary • work vs. time vs. people • estimating resources is very difficult • ACM’s ethics code

  8. Information Flow Diagram 2b Tasks 3b Abstract Code w/SQL 4b 3GL Code w/SQL 1 2a 3a 4a ER Diagram Relational Schema Relational Platform Overview of the Methodology Analysis Specification Design Implementation 1 2 3 4

  9. Analysis

  10. Analysis Purpose: • analyze documents and tasks; determine system requirements Input: • descriptions of documents and tasks; scenarios; usage statistics; plans for the future system; relevant laws, constraints, and policies Output: • Information Flow Diagram (IFD) modeling external I/O documents, internal I/O documents, tasks, and system boundary. Techniques: • interviews with people at all levels of the enterprise • analysis of documents, scenarios, tasks • reviews of short and long-term plans, manuals, files, and forms • work from outside in • abstraction Tools: • Information Flow Diagrams

  11. D2 D3 D4 D1 T1 Database T2 T3 T4 D6 D5 task name information flow document name system boundary Information Flow Diagram • information flow; not control flow • never connect two documents • never connect two tasks

  12. Example

  13. Airports Airport Code Name City State - - - - - - - - Flight-Schedule AIRLINE From City To City; Flt#; Dtime; Atime; Weekdays; miles; price - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Airplanes Plane# Plane type Total #seats - - - - - - Example External Documents Ticket Airline Ticket# Customer Name From To Flt# Date Dtime Atime - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Price Passenger List Date Flt# Airline Customer Name Seat# - - - - - - Boarding Pass Airline seat# Customer Name From To Flt# Date Dtime Atime - - - - - -

  14. Inquiry Date: (yy-mm-dd) Departure Airport: Arrival Airport: More Options? (yes/no) One-leg flights are: From To Flt# Date Dtime Atime - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Two-leg flights are: - - - - - - - - - - - - Create Flight Instance Date: (yy-mm-dd) Flt#: Assign Flight Date: (yy-mm-dd) Flt#: Plane# Check-In/Seat selection Ticket# Seat Reservation/Cancellation Make Reservation Cancel Reservation Date: (yy-mm-dd) Flt#: Customer Name Customer Address First: Street: Middle: City: Last: State, Zip: Phone#: Example External Documents

  15. Example Scenarios • Staff enters airport information. • Staff enters airplane information. • Staff enters flight schedule information. • Staff creates instance of scheduled flight. • Staff assigns airplane to flight instance. • Customer inquires about direct, 1-leg, or multi-leg flights from departure airport to arrival airport on a desired travel date. Inquiry is answered. • Customer provides flight number, travel date, and customer information and makes a reservation. Ticket is printed. Or, customer cancels an existing reservation. • Customer checks in and selects seat on a flight instance he or she has reservation for. Boarding pass is issued.

  16. Example Tasks • Answer Inquiry • Make Reservation/Cancellation • Enter Flight-Schedule • Create Flight Instance • Enter Airports • Enter Planes • Assign Planes • Process Check-In

  17. Example Statistics The Airline Reservation System supports 3 airlines.. Each airline has about 100 planes. Each plane departs an average of 4 times per day. There are 6 hubs each of which is completely connected to the others with 1 flight per hour 18 hours per day. Each of the 6 hubs is connected to about 6 non-hub cities with 1 flight every 2 hours 18 hours per day. About 30% of all reservations are cancelled. Planes are over-booked by approximately 10%. Each plane has 250 seats and is on the average filled 77%. About 30,000 inquiries per day do not result in reservations. About 90% of all inquiries deal with direct flights only. About 10% of all inquiries deal with direct and 2-leg flights. About 1% of all inquiries deal with n-leg fights, n>2. About 5% of all reservations are made by new customers. Customers fly on the average 1 time per month. At any given time, about half of the flights scheduled over the next 6 months are instantiated. At any given time, about half of the reservations for the customers who will travel the following 30 days are in the database.

  18. Check-In Inquiry Reservation/ Cancellation Ticket Boarding Pass Flight Schedule Make Reservation/ Cancellation Answer Inquiry Passenger list Process Check-in Enter Flight Schedule ? Assign Planes Enter Airports Create Flight Inst Enter Planes Assign Planes Airports Create Flight Inst Airplanes ExampleInformation Flow Diagram

  19. Specification

  20. Specification Purpose: • create detailed specification of internal documents and tasks from the IFD Input: • IFD, usage statistics, and other information gathered during the analysis Output: • ER-Diagram, Data Representation, Constraints, Task Decomposition, Task Forms, Task Statistics Techniques: • data modeling • top-down decomposition of tasks until their specification is sufficiently detailed to allow a programmer to implement them • task decomposition may result in tasks replacing the original task or in subtasks controlled by the original task Tools: • ER-Model; Task Forms

  21. ? • Everything in the database must come from somewhere • Everything on the input documents must go somewhere • Everything in the database must be used for something • Everything on the output documents must come from somewhere What goes into the database? What comes out of the database?

  22. Airports Airport Code Name City State - - - - - - - - Airport Code Name City Airport State Example ER-Diagram

  23. Flight-Schedule AIRLINE From City To City; Flt#; Dtime; Atime; Weekdays; Miles; Price - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Dtime Atime Airline From City Miles Flt Schedule Price To City Flt# Weekday Example ER-Diagram

  24. Flight-Schedule AIRLINE From City To City; Flt#; Dtime; Atime; Weekdays; Miles; Price - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Dtime Atime Airline Airport Code From Name Miles 1 n City Airport Flt Schedule n 1 To Price State Flt# Weekday Example ER-Diagram (integrate)

  25. Create Flight Instance Date: (yy-mm-dd) Flt#: Dtime Atime Airline Airport Code From Name Miles 1 n City Airport Flt Schedule n 1 To Price State Flt# Weekday 1 Instance Of Date n Flt Instance Example ER-Diagram

  26. Airplanes Plane# Plane Type Total #Seats - - - - - - Assign Flight Date: (yy-mm-dd) Flt#: Plane# Dtime Atime Airline Airport Code From Name Miles 1 n City Airport Flt Schedule n 1 To Price State Flt# Weekday 1 Instance Of Plane# Plane Type Date n Assigned 1 n Flt Instance Airplane Total #Seats Example ER-Diagram

  27. Reservation/Cancellation Make Reservation Cancel Reservation Date: (yy-mm-dd) Flt#: Customer Name Customer Address First: Street: Middle: City: Last: State, Zip: Phone#: Flt Schedule Flt# 1 Instance Of Plane# Plane Type n Assigned 1 n Airplane Total #Seats Example ER-Diagram Airline Date Ticket# Flt Instance n Seat# #Avail Seats Reser- Vation Street Check-In Status n First City Customer Address Customer Name Customer Middle State Phone# Cust# Last Zip

  28. Example ER-Diagram Dtime Atime Airline Airport Code From Name Miles 1 n City Airport Flt Schedule n 1 To Price State Flt# Weekday 1 Instance Of Plane# Plane Type Date n Assigned 1 n Ticket# Flt Instance Airplane n Seat# Total #Seats #Avail Seats Reser- Vation Street Check-In Status n First City Customer Address Customer Name Customer Middle State Phone# Cust# Last Zip

  29. Example Data Representation(from external documents) • Flt-Schedule: • Flt#: LLDDD, like DL242, SK912, ... • Dtime, Atime: HH:MM:SS (time of day), like 09:30:00, 16:25:00, ... (time zones? flights crossing midnight?) • Airline: L...L (30), like Delta, Scandinavian, • Miles: DDDD, like 500, 2550, ... • Price: DDDD.DD (US$), like 725.00 • Weekday: {MO,TU,WE,TH,FR,SA,SU} • Airport: • Airport-Code: LLL, like ATL, CPH, ... • Name: L...L (30), like Hartsfield, Kastrup, .. • City: L...L (30), like Atlanta, København, ... • State: LL, like GA, MD, ... (international addresses?) • Flt-Instance: • Date: YYYY-MM-DD, like 1999-01-31 • etc.

  30. Example Constraints • ...must depart before arriving... x  Flt-Schedule: x.Dtime < x.Atime • ..cannot depart and arrive at same airport.. x Flt-Schedule:x.From.Airportx.To.Airport • ...plane can only be in one place at a time.. x,y  Flt-Instance, xy, x.Date=y.Date, x.Assigned.Airplane=y.Assigned.Airplane: x.Instance-Of.Flt-Schedule.Atime < y.Instance-Of.Flt-Schedule.Dtime or x.Instance-Of.Flt-Schedule.Dtime > y.Instance-Of.Flt-Schedule.Atime • ...match flight date and weekday... x  Flt-Instance: Convert(x.Date to W eekday)  x.Instance-of.Flt-Schedule.Weekday • ...overbook by less than 10%... x  Flt-Instance: x.#Avail-Seats = x.Assigned.Airplane.Total#Seats1.1  count(x.Reservation) • ..flights crossing midnight....time zones.. • many, many more

  31. Task Name: Unique name Task Number: Unique number, e.g. 1, 2, 3, ... Dot-notation for subtasks, e.g. 1.1, 1.2, ... Description: Brief natural language description of task Enabling Cond.: Description of what enables the task, e.g. information, control, time, ... Frequency: Frequency of task; use same uom across tasks, e.g. #times/day Input: List of fields from external input documents; List of entities and relationships from ER-Diagram Output: List of fields from external output documents; List of entities and relationships from ER-Diagram Operation: Detailed pseudo-code description of the task wrt. the external documents and the ER-Diagram Subtasks: List of subtasks controlled by the task. Task Forms

  32. Task Decomposition- rules of thumb • Different enabling conditions apply to different parts of the task • may hold back parts of task able to run • Different frequencies apply to different parts of the task • results in unnecessary costly indexing • Different parts of ER-Diagram used by different parts of the task • may lock too large parts of database causing lock contention • Many subtasks controlled by the task • may lock database too long causing lock contention • Many diversified operations carried out by the task • difficult to understand and program

  33. T2 Make Reservation/ Cancellation T2.2 Cancel Reservation T2.1 Make Reservation T2.1.1 Insert Customer T2.1.2 Insert Reservation T2.1.3 Print Ticket T1 Answer Inquiry T3 Process Check-in T3.1 Check_In Passenger T3.2 Passenger List T1.2 Indirect Flights T1.1 Direct Flights Example Task Decomposition ?

  34. Example Task Statistics Answer Inquiry (T1) = 360,000/day 3 airlines x 100 planes x 4 flights/plane/day x 250 seats/plane x 1.1 seats booked + 30,000 additional inquiries Direct-Flights (T1.1) = 360,000/day Indirect-Flights (T1.2) = 39,600/day 10% of 360,000/day 2-leg + 1% of 360,000/day n-leg Make-Reservation-Cancellation (T2): See subtasks. Make-Reservation (T2.1) = 330,000/day Insert-Customer (T2.1.1) = 16,500/day 5% of 330,000/day Insert-Reservation (T2.1.2) = 330,000/day Print-Ticket (T2.1.3) = 330,000/day Cancel-Reservation (T2.2) = 99,000/day 30% of 330,000/day Process-Check-In (T3): See subtasks. Check-In-Passenger (T3.1) = 231,000/day 330,000/day - 99,000/day Passenger-List (T3.2) = 1200/day 3 airlines x 100 planes x 4 flights/plane/day

  35. Example Task Form Task Name: Answer-Inquiry Task Number: T1 Description: Takes an Inquiry as input. Returns direct, 2-leg, 3-leg, ... flights as long as More Options are requested. Enabling Cond.: Receipt of an Inquiry Frequency: 360,000/day. Input: EDs: Inquiry E-Types: Airport; Flt-Schedule R-Types: From; To Output: Inquiry Operation: Print(Inquiry, “One-leg flights are:”); Direct Flights; Print(Inquirt, “More Options?”); Read(Inquiry, More Options); i=2; WHILE More Options DO PRINT(Inquiry, “The”, i, “-leg flights are:”); Indirect Flights(i); Print(Inquiry, “More Options?”); Read(Inquiry, More Options); i=i+1 ENDWHILE; Subtasks: Direct-Flights; Indirect-Flights();

  36. Example Task Form Task Name: Direct-Flights Task Number: T1.1 Description: Takes Departure Airport, Arrival Airport and Date. Returns information about all direct flights, if any. Enabling Cond.: Receipt of an Inquiry. Called from Answer-Inquiry. Frequency: 360,000/day Input: EDs: Inquiry E-Types: Airport; Flt-Schedule R-Types: From; To Output: Inquiry Operation: READ(Inquiry, :Departure-Airport, :Arrival-Airport,:Date); Convert :Date to :Weekday; IF EXISTS Flt-Schedule entity, such that: From.Airport.Airport-Code=:Departure-Airport and To.Airport.Airport-Code=:Arrival-Airport and Weekday=:Weekday THEN WHILE more Flt-Schedule entities DO PRINT(Inquiry, :From=From.Airport.Airport-Code :To=From.Airport.Airport-Code :Flt#=Flt# :Date=Date :Dtime=Dtime :Atime=Atime);

  37. Example Task Form Task Name: Make-Reservation/Cancellation Task Number: T2 Description: This task supports requests for and cancellations of reservations, and printing of tickets Enabling Cond.: Receipt of Make Reservation/Cancellation request Frequency: See subtasks Input: EDs: Reservation/Cancellation E-Types: Flt-Schedule, Flt-Instance, Customer R-Types: Instance-Of, Reservation Output: EDs: Reservation/Cancellation E-Types: Flt-Instance, Customer R-Types: Reservation Operation: IF Make-Reservation THEN Make-Reservation ELSE IF Cancel Reservation THEN Cancel-Reservation; Subtasks: Make-Reservation; Cancel-Reservation;

  38. Example Task Form Task Name: Make-Reservation Task Number: T2.1 Description: This task makes a reservation for a known flight and enters customer information, if needed Enabling Cond.: Receipt of Reservation/Cancellation with Make-Reservation=true; Called from Make-Reservation/Cancellation(T2) Frequency: 330,000/day Input: EDs: Reservation/Cancellation E-Types: Flt-schedule; Flt-Instance; Customer R-Types: Instance-Of; Reservation Output: EDs: Ticket E-Types: Flt-Instance; Customer R-Types: Reservation Operation: READ(Reservation/Cancellation, :Flt#, :Date); IF NOT EXISTS Flt-Instance entity, such that Date=:Date and Instance-Of.Flt#=:Flt# and #Avail-Seats>0 THEN STOP; READ(Reservation/Cancellation, :First, :Middle, :Last, :Phone#, :Street, :City, :State, :Zip); IF EXISTS Customer entity, such that Customer-Name=(:First,:Middle,:Last) and Customer-Address=(:Street,:City,:State,:Zip) and Phone#=:Phone# THEN Cust#=:Cust# ELSE Insert-Customer; Insert-Reservation; Print-Ticket; Subtasks: Insert-Customer; Insert-Reservation; Print-Ticket;

  39. Example Task Form Task Name: Insert-Customer Task Number: T2.1.1 Description: Insert new customer name, phone# and address Enabling Cond.: Available Customer information Called from Make-Reservation (T2.1) Frequency: 16,500/day Input: EDs: None E-Types: None R-Types: None Output: EDs: None E-Types: Customer R-Types: None Operation: insert into Customer Values ( new(:Cust#), :First, :Middle, :Last, :Phone#, :Street, :City, :State, :Zip); return Cust#=:Cust#; Subtasks: None

  40. Example Task Form Task Name: Insert-Reservation Task Number: T2.1.2 Description: Inserts Reservation on known Flt-Instance for existing Customer Enabling Cond.: Available Customer and Flt-Instance information Called from Make-Reservation (T2.1) Frequency: 330,000/day Input: EDs: None E-Types: None R-Types: None Output: EDs: None E-Types: None R-Types: Reservation Operation: insert into Reservation (Flt-Instance (:Flt#, :Date), Customer (:Cust#), Seat# NULL, CheckInStatus NO, Ticket# new(:Ticket#)); Subtasks: None

  41. Design

  42. Design Purpose: • create detailed design of normalized relational database schema • create detailed design of tasks using abstract code with embedded SQL • identify need for views Input: • EDs, ER-Diagram, TFs Output: • relational schema w/primary and foreign keys, constraint definitions in SQL, abstract code w/SQL, view definitions Techniques: • database normalization; abstract coding Tools: • mapping: ER-Model  Relational Model • graphical DDLs • abstract code; SQL; views

  43. ET ET B ET B ET A ET A B ET D ET C A B D E E ET-F A A F ET F ET B ER-Model Relational Model ET +constraint B ET or, define as a view

  44. ER-Model Relational Model ET1 A B ET1 ET2 1 B R ET1 A 1 ET2 ET2 B A ET1 A ET2 B A ET1 ET1 NO A 1 ET2 R B ET1 A n ET2 ET2 B A - or - ET1 1 R 1 ET2

  45. ER-Model Relational Model ET1 NO A ET2 B ET1 ET1 NO A n ET2 R B ET1 n A ET2 R A B ET2 B

  46. ER-Model Relational Model ET1 ET1 A A R B ET2 ET2 A B

  47. AIRPORT airportcode name city state Example Relational Schema FLT-SCHEDULE flt# airline dtime from-airportcode atime to-airportcode miles price FLT-WEEKDAY flt# weekday FLT-INSTANCE flt# date plane# #avail-seats AIRPLANE plane# plane-type total-#seats CUSTOMER cust# first middle last phone# street city state zip RESERVATION flt# date cust# seat# check-in-status ticket#

  48. AIRPORT airportcode name city state FLT-SCHEDULE flt#airline dtime from-airportcode atime to-airportcode miles price FLT-WEEKDAY flt# weekday FLT-INSTANCE flt# dateplane# #avail-seats AIRPLANE plane#plane-type total-#seats CUSTOMER cust#first middle last phone# street city state zip RESERVATION flt# date cust# seat# check-in-status ticket# Example Relational Schema(primary and foreign keys)

  49. Database Normalization 1NF • Are all the attribute values atomic? 2NF • Do all attributes outside of the key functionally depend on the full key? 3NF • Do any of the attributes outside of the key functionally depend on each other? BCNF • Are all determinants for functional dependencies candidate keys?

  50. Database Normalization The Good News: • If you have designed the ER-Diagram well you don’t need to :-) The Bad News: • Plane-type determines total-#seats in AIRPLANE • (from-airportcode, to-airportcode) determine miles in FLT-SCHEDULE :-| The Ugly News: • Someone else may have designed the ER-Diagram • Database performance may not be acceptable :-( :-(