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# ORD-10

ORD-10. Ordinary Piloting. Instructors: George Crowl. Course Outline. a. Demonstrate your understanding of latitude and longitude. Using a chart, demonstrate that you can locate your position from given coordinates and determine the coordinates of at least five aids to navigation.

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## ORD-10

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1. ORD-10 Ordinary Piloting Instructors: George Crowl

2. Course Outline • a. Demonstrate your understanding of latitude and longitude. Using a chart, demonstrate that you can locate your position from given coordinates and determine the coordinates of at least five aids to navigation. • b. Explain the degree system of compass direction. Explain variation and deviation and how they are used to convert between true heading and bearings to compass headings and bearings.

3. Course Outline (2) • c. Describe three kinds of devices used aboard ship for measuring speed and/or distance. • d. Explain the 24-hour time system and demonstrate that you can convert between 12- and 24-hour time. • e. Understand Universal Coordinated time (Greenwich Mean Time or Zulu Time) and zone time. Demonstrate your ability to convert from one to the other for your local area.

4. Course Outline (3) • f. make a dead reckoning table of compass and distances (minimum three legs) between two points, plot these on a chart, and determine the final position. Note: Ideally this requirement should be met while underway. If this is not ossible, it may be simulated using charts. • g. Discuss how a GPS works. Explain possible uses and functions, including different screen views. Use a GPS to set a waypoint and navigate to the waypoint you have set.

5. ORD-10a. • Demonstrate your understanding of latitude and longitude. • Using a chart, demonstrate that you can locate your position from given coordinates and determine the coordinates of at least five aids to navigation.

6. Latitude / Longitude Houston is about 30° north of the equator, and 90° west of Greenwich. Numbers increase up and left in the US.

7. 60 Minutes per Degree • 60 minutes per degree • 1 minute = 1 nautical mile • (measured north / south) • 1 NM = 6080 ft • 60 seconds = 1 minute • 1 second = 101 feet • In Java, latitude increases south and longitude increases east. Why?

8. Plotting a Position • Determine the parallels on the chart that bracket the latitude. • Place the pivot point of the compass on the closest line. • Spread the compass until the lead rests on the given latitude. • Move to the approximate longitude and swing an arc.

9. Plotting a Position • The same process is repeated using the longitude scale and the given longitude. • The desired position is the intersection of these two arcs. • If plotted correctly, the intersection should occur at the crest of both arcs.

10. Minutes / SecondsMinutes / Tenths, Hundredths • Measure in degrees, minutes, seconds (N29° 34’ 47”) OR • Measure in degrees, minutes, and tenths, hundredths, thousandths (N29° 34.783’) • N 29° 34’ 47” = N 29° 34.783’ • See the left and bottom edges of your chart, and the 1/10’ marks on the middle. • EXERCISE – Plot the following coordinates: • N41°41.4' W072°05.5' • N41°40.2' W072°01.1' • N41-39.6 W071-57.6 • N41-37.5 W071-59.6 • N41-39.0 W072-01.4

11. Plotted Points

12. Determine Coordinates of… • 1. Channel Island Light Fl 8s 20ft 5M • 2. Bowditch Bay Light G9 Fl G 4s • 3. Oyster River Light G1 Fl G 2s • 4. Bowditch Bay Buoy R N 14 • 5. Bowditch Bay Light R16 Fl R 4s

13. Coordinates are: • 1. Channel Is Light N41°41.7' W071°53.7' • 2. BB G9 Fl G 4s N41-37.5 W071-55.0 • 3. OR G1 Fl G 2s N41-36.7 W072-01.0 • 4. BB R14 R N 14 N41-39.8 W072-04.5 • 5. BB R16 Fl R 4s N41-38.8 W072-07.9

14. ORD-10b. • Explain the degree system of compass direction. • Explain variation and deviation, and how they are used to convert between true and compass headings and bearings.

15. Degree System of Compass Direction (Outer Ring) • 360° in a circle, 0° and 360° at North (star) • 090° = East • 180° = South • 270° = West • Any intermediatedirection measuredby numbered angle

16. North Magnetic Pole • Compass does not point N • Changes everywhere • Points 2° E Houston so (-) • subtract from True

17. Variation (inner circle) • Compass variation – same for all compasses • Plotted on chartcompass rose • Listed on bottomof chart also • Look at your chart

18. Deviation Deflection of a compass needle caused by a magnetic influence

19. Deviation • Different on EVERY boat • Different on EVERY heading for every boat! • Also –E & +W Defiant Compass Swing 4 NOV 06 Motor on, under way TRUE VAR MAG DEV COMP 007 -4 003 -3 000 035 -4 031 -1 030 - - - - 060 092 -4 088 +2 090 120 -4 116 +4 120 154 -4 150 0 150 182 -4 178 +2 180 213 -4 209 +1 210 243 -4 239 +1 240 274 -4 270 0 270 305 -4 301 -1 300 332 -4 328 +2 330 007 -4 003 -3 360

20. Variation, Deviation & Compass Correction • TC VAR MC DEV COMP • 117 -3E 114 +2W 116 • T V Makes Dull Company - • Add Whisky (+W) • Hand compasses = no deviation, because deviation depends on where you are on the boat

21. Sample Deck Log

22. Compass Correction East is Least (-) “-3E” West is Best (+) “+15W”

23. Compass Correction • T True • V Variation • M Magnetic • D Deviation • C Compass • TV Makes Dull Company

24. ORD-10c. • Describe three kinds of devices used aboard ship for measuring speed and/or distance traveled and, if possible, demonstrate their use.

25. Speed Logs • Speed by RPM • Dutchman’s log 5”/30’ = 3.56KT • Ground Log • Chip Log • Patent Log • Taffrail Log • GPS

26. Chip Log

27. Patent / Taffrail Log

28. 10c. Measure Speed and Distance • Distance is measured in • Nautical miles • = 6080 feet • Speed is measured in • Knots • (Nautical miles per hour)

29. Measuring Distance • Always measure distance on the Latitude scale! • OR – use the scale on the chart

30. Why We Use Vertical Scale

31. Measuring Course – Parallel Rules Using parallel rules • B A SSPR p. 22

32. Measuring Course – Plotter • Plotter – align using your dividers • Grommet on longitude line

33. Deck Log Plan Start your deck log with true course and distance. Derive mag course and perhaps compass.

34. Speed Time Distance D (distance) S (speed) = 60 (minutes) T time)

35. Estimate Speed, Calculate Time 6.0 = 9.3 60x9.3 = 558÷6.0 = 93 = 1+33 60 X

36. ORD-10d. • Explain the 24-hour time system and demonstrate that you can convert between 12- and 24- hour time.

37. 12- vs. 24-Hour Time • 12-Hour 24-Hour 12-Hour 24-Hour • 1:00 AM 0100 1:00 PM 1300 • 2:00 AM 0200 2:00 PM 1400 • 3:00 AM 0300 3:00 PM 1500 • 4:00 AM 0400 4:00 PM 1600 • 5:00 AM 0500 5:00 PM 1700 • 6:00 AM 0600 6:00 PM 1800 • 7:00 AM 0700 7:00 PM 1900 • 8:00 AM 0800 8:00 PM 2000 • 9:00 AM 0900 9:00 PM 2100 • 10:00 AM 1000 10:00 PM 2200 • 11:00 AM 1100 11:00 PM 2300 • Noon 1200 Midnight 2400

38. 24-Hour Clock Faces

39. ORD-10e. • Understand Universal Coordinated Time (Greenwich Mean Time or Zulu Time) and zone time. • Demonstrate your ability to convert from one to the other for your local area.

40. Zone Time

41. UCT / GMT / Zulu • Zone Standard DST Zulu • Eastern 1000 1100 1500 • Central 0900 1000 1500 • Mountain 0800 0900 1500 • Pacific 0700 0800 1500

42. ORD-10f. • Make a dead reckoning table of compass and distances (minimum three legs) between two points, plot these on a chart, and determine the final position. • Note: Ideally this requirement should be met while under way. If this is not possible, it may be simulated using charts.

43. Dead Reckoning • Record of ships progress based on • Course • Speed • Time traveled • Known starting point (fix) • Checked every hour, minimum • Checked at every course or speed change

44. Dead Reckoning Terms • DR Dead Reckoning Position • EP Estimated Position • Fix Established position by any means • LOP Line of Position • C Course (where you want to go) • S Speed • Track Where you actually went • Heading Where the bow of your boat is pointed

45. Dead Reckoning (DR) • Start from a fix • Label all lines on chart • Numbers are rounded off • Use Military time • Courses & bearings are 3 digits (045, 218) • Label course with C & bearing with B (C045, B126) • Speed in Knots (1/10 K) placed under the course line • Distance to nearest 1/10 NM place after speed • DR is marked by a dot and semicircle •  • Fix is marked by a dot and circle with the time  • Estimated position marked by a dot and square [·] and time

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