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The History and Development of the European Therapeutic Communities

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  1. The History and Development of the European Therapeutic Communities Eric Broekaert University Växjö, Sweden, November 2009

  2. Broekaert, E., Vanderplasschen, W., Temmerman, I., Ottenberg, D., & Kaplan, C. (2000). Retrospective study of similarities and relations between the American drug-free and the European therapeutic communities for children and adults. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 32(4), 407-417. • Eric Broekaert, Kathy Colpaert, Veerle Soyez, Wouter Vanderplasschen, Stijn Vandevelde. Transatlantic Dialectics:A study on similarities and dissimilarities in approaches to substance abuse problems in the United States and Europe. Submitted to: Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal for Therapeutic and Supportive Organizations.

  3. Early TC’s In Europe • World War II: Innovation of psychiatry • ‘Northfield experiments’ • Treatment of psychiatric casualties of war • Dealing with psychiatric problems in social settings HaroldBridger “A transitional space of experience”

  4. Maxwell Jones “ Social learning is complicated and painfull ”

  5. The drug-free TC • The Oxford- groups, Moral Rearmement, AA-movement • Synanon • American Behavioristic Communities • Integrated European Communities: behaviorists, psychopedagogues, humanist Christians • French Communities

  6. The Oxford-groups, Moral Rearmement, AA-movement Dr. Frank N.D. Buchman “ A search for spiritual authority ”

  7. Synanon Charles Dederich “Today is the first day of the rest of your life”

  8. Synanon The cradle of the drug-free TC

  9. American Behavioristic Communities Msgr William O’Brien Charles J. Devlin “You can not do it alone”

  10. Integrated European Communities: Behaviorists • The Netherlands Emiliehoeve “My house, is a very very nice house!” Martien Kooyman

  11. Integrated European Communities: psychopedagogues Belgium Georges van der Straten Trempoline “European companionship in education, the formation trough the journey”

  12. Integrated European Communities: humanist Christians Don Mario Picchi Yuan Parés y Plans “Progetto per l’ Uomo” “I am like a sail, I catch the wind ”

  13. Dr. Donald Ottenberg “Taking decisions in a life that is valued”

  14. French Communities France Lucien Engelmajer ‘Le Patriarche’ La Boère “ A life without drugs ”

  15. Chronology of American predecessors and European TC’s

  16. Year ‘69 – ‘71

  17. Year ‘71 – ‘72

  18. Year ‘73 – ‘74

  19. Year ‘76 - ‘79

  20. Year ‘79 – ‘82

  21. Year ‘83 – ‘90

  22. Swedish FriendsJan Henning "Moltas" Erikson, född 29 november1932, död 1 juni1988, var en svensk underhållare samt psykiater vid Ulleråkers sjukhus i Uppsala

  23. Swedish FriendsLars Bremberg was an important person within the TC movement. He arranged the first Eupropean TC meeting in Sweden 1976. He started Vallmotorp 1973 and Daytop Sweden some years later.

  24. European Identity • American Behaviourist tradition • Psycho-analytical-based milieutherapy • 1970’s-ideologies, marxism and critical theory • Integration of democratic and hierarchical TC approaches. • Social learning

  25. Adaptation of American models into own culture: • Evolution towards more empathic behaviour modification and dialogue. • Traditional European educational theories, new school movement and reform pedagogy. • Integration of humanistic therapy into TC methodology. • Introduction of existentialist family therapy

  26. More professionalism • Health care professionals and priests • Researchers • Less important role of ex-addicts • Scientific Research • Counterweight against spiritual and self-confirming tendencies • Transition towards integrative recovery and integrated treatment systems • EFCT • collaboration and information exchange • Links with EWODOR, European universities

  27. What can we expect from the future?

  28. Post Modern Times Michel Foucault “ To change something in the minds of people ”