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The Romantic Age

The Romantic Age

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The Romantic Age

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  1. The Romantic Age

  2. Values of Romanticism • Rejection of: simplicity, proportion and restraint. • Romantics valued: Feeling, Intuition, Passion, Imagination, Spontaneity

  3. Revolutions and Rights • 1776-- American Revolution • 1789-- French Revolution • Democracy, republicanism, equality before the law • Congresses, presidencies, constitutions--results of those conflicts

  4. The Revolution in America • American colonists’ resentment of British control • Declaration of Independence, 1776 • Principles of Enlightenment--John Locke’s Treatise on Civil Government • Thomas Jefferson: equality, civil rights and popular sovereignty from philosophes • Federalist Papers: authority of state; rights of individual--did not address slavery

  5. The Revolution in France • Louis XVI • July 14: Bastille prison attacked • Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen-- from Rousseau’s thoughts • Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite • 1793, beheading of monarchs • Reign of Terror began

  6. The Napoleonic Era • 1799--disillusioned citizens • New hero: Napoleon Bonaparte • Dreams of imperial glory • Crowned himself emperor in 1804 • Campaign to conquer Europe • Defeated in 1814 at Waterloo • Imprisoned for the rest of his life in St. Helena

  7. Napoleon and the Arts • Imitated Roman emperors--Paris imperial capital like Rome • Power advertised by arts and buildings • Louvre--museum to pieces stolen from conquered countries • Triumphal arches and columns • La Madeleine--Greek temple

  8. Jacques-Louis David--Painter to the Empire • Napoleon Crossing the Alps • Benoist’s Portrait of a Black Woman • Counterpoint to Canova’s sculpture of Napoleon’s sister as Venus

  9. Colonial Revolutionaries • 1793--Toussaint L’Ouverture led Haiti’s revolt against the French--Napoleon imprisoned him. • Simon Bolivar--wanted to create a United States of South America. Obtained freedom for Venezuela, Colombia and Peru.

  10. The Romantic Hero • Romantics preferred feeling and imagination to intellect and reason. Attracted to the picturesque in nature and the past; prized creativity and cast off neoclassical restraint and laws. • 1775-1850

  11. Beethoven • Suffering romantic genius • Deafness at 25 • Pianist in Vienna, able to sell his compositions • Symphony No. 3 Eroica was the bridge between Classical style and romantic style

  12. Added piccolo and trombone to the symphonic orchestra • Symphony Number 5 in C Minor • Confrontation with fate: “Fate knocking at the door” • Motif: Term for short musical idea

  13. Musical Virtuosos • Paganini: violin • Chopin: piano • Schumann: Songs and symphonies • Clara Schumann: Lieder (songs) • Brahms: symphonies

  14. Goethe and Faust • Faust: romantic masterpiece drama in two parts • Delacroix illustrated a French translation • Schubert composed songs • Gounod: opera Faust: Ambition to burst all human constraint and indulge unquenched desire for experience

  15. Delacroix and the Byronic Hero • French more attracted to sensuality of Lord Byron: Don Juan, life of sexual freedom, political idealism and exotic travel. • Intellectual and moral freedom • Eugene Delacroix rebelled against the academy • Color, drama and exotic themes

  16. Death of SardanapalusandLiberty Leading the People • Orgy of egoism, violence and sexuality • When threatened by rebellion he destroys his possessions and himself • Revolution of 1830 overthrew the Bourbon king • Unity of the classes

  17. Elements of Romanticism • Heroic individualism: Faust and Lord Byron • Protest against political and social injustice • Attraction for nature and medieval times • Fascination with evil and the exotic • Sensibility that responded to historical circumstances

  18. Romantic Social Protest: William Blake • Sympathetic observer of those enslaved by the industrial city • Condemned the ills of urban existence

  19. Romantic Feminism • Mary Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Women : Compared women to soldiers • Revolutions did not liberate women. Napoleon’s legal code denied women the right to hold property • Western nations did not allow women to vote

  20. Goya and Spain • Goya’s paintings depicted the senseless brutality of war • Executions of the Third of May 1808 • Christ-like martyr in white • Lamp: enlightenment (irony) • The Sleep of Reason Brings Forth Monsters, Romantic fascination with evil

  21. The Romantics and Nature • Romantic landscapes • Constable: The Hay Wain rustic landscapes • Turner: The Slave Ship (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying—Typhoon Coming On) • Effects of fog and smoke

  22. Romantic Exoticism • Middle classes become strong • Drawn to exotic and grotesque • Colonies overseas: Africa and Asia • Fascination with Arabic customs and dress • Ingres: Disciple of David--The TurkishBath • Classical figures

  23. Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique • Innovated with program music (composition that tells a story or describes a place) • Story of Irish actress who rejected him • Fifth movement: musician is dead and his beloved joins the celebration in a witches’ dance • The macabre

  24. The Romantic Novel • Fascination with evil and the demonic: The Gothic novel • Edgar Allan Poe • Charlotte and Emily Bronte • Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein • Hero who suffers a conflict between his God-like ambitions and moral blindness