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You Are Your Memory

You Are Your Memory

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You Are Your Memory

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  1. You Are Your Memory Your memory stores: • Your personal experiences • Emotions • Preferences/dislikes • Motor skills • World knowledge • Language Fundamentally, you as a person are derived from experiences that have been stored in your nervous system. This is possible only because your brain has developed the capacity to store information.

  2. Definition “Learning is the process of acquiring new information, while memory refers to the persistence of learning in a state that can be revealed at a later time” (Squire, 1987).

  3. Hermann Ebbinghaus

  4. Figure 1.3 Single-trace and dual-trace theories of Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve

  5. Historical Foundations: The Golden Age Théodule Ribot proposed that during disease of the brain, memories disappear in an orderly fashion Ribot’s Law: Ribot also proposed that old memories are more resistant to disease/disruption than new memories.

  6. Historical Foundations: The Golden Age Serge Korsakoff Described the syndrome produced by alcohol now called Korsakoff’s Syndrome. The syndrome is characterized by what we would now call anterograde amnesia—the inability to acquire new memories. During the late stages there is also retrograde amnesia—the loss of memories acquired before the onset of the disease. He also proposed that amnesia could be due to either storage failure or retrieval failure.

  7. Historical Foundations: The Golden Age William James proposed that memories emerge in stages. An after image is supported by a very short-lasting trace, then replaced by the primary trace that also decays. Secondary memory is viewed as the reservoir of enduring memory trace that with an appropriate retrieval cue can be recalled.

  8. Historical Foundations: The Golden Age Santiago Ramón y Cajal The Neuron Doctrine: The idea that the brain is made up of discrete cells called nerve cells, each delimited by an external membrane. The Synaptic Plasticity hypothesis: The idea that the strength of a synaptic connection can be modified by experience.

  9. Figure 1.8 Pavlovian conditioning is widely used to study learning and memory in animals • Ivan P. Pavlov • Developed the fundamental • methodology for studying • associative learning in animals.

  10. Historical Foundations: The Golden Age Edward L. Thorndike Developed the first methodology for studying how we learn about the consequences of our actions = Instrumental conditioning (Thorndikian conditioning) The Law of Effect: The correct behavior was learned because the consequences of successful outcome (a satisfying state) strengthened connections between the stimulus (S) and correct response (R) and the consequence of unsuccessful responses (annoying state) weaken the competing and wrong S–R connections.

  11. Figure 1.9 Edward L. Thorndike invented the methodology for studying instrumental learning

  12. WHO WAS… • Herman Ebbinghaus? • Theodule Ribot? • Serge Korsakoff? • William James? • Santiago Ramón y Cajal? • Ivan P. Pavlov? • Edward L. Thorndike?

  13. DEFINITIONS • Declarative memory (explicit) • Knowledge to which we have conscious access, including personal and world knowledge • Nondeclarative memory (implicit) • Knowledge to which we typically have no concious access, such as motor and cognitive skills

  14. DEFINITIONS • Episodic memory • Stored information about events in one’s life, including information about when they happened and what happened • Semantic memory • A category of memory that is believed to support memory for facts and the ability to extract generalizations across experiences

  15. DEFINITIONS • Procedural memory • A form of non-declarative memory that involves the learning of a variety of motor skills and cognitive skills (e.g., how to ride a bike or how to read) • Perceptual representation system • A courier network that delivers sensory information to the CNS to control muscles of the body; anything outside the brain and spinal cord

  16. TYPES OF MEMORY Type of memory Time course Capacity Conscious Awareness? Mechanisms of Loss Sensory ms-s high no Primarily Decay Short-term and working s-min limited yes Primarily Decay Long-term nondeclarative days-years high no Primarily Interference Long-term declarative days-years high yes Primarily Interference *TABLE 8.1 page 314

  17. p.314 W. W. Norton

  18. Declarative or explicit memory is knowledge that • a. one can access consciously. • b. one cannot access consciously. • c. is a form of sensory memory. • d. is a form of short-term memory.

  19. Declarative or explicit memory is knowledge that • a. one can access consciously. • b. one cannot access consciously. • c. is a form of sensory memory. • d. is a form of short-term memory.

  20. Barbara remembers that Madrid is the capital of Spain, but she has no idea when or where she acquired this knowledge. Her ________ memory is accurate, but her ________ memory is incomplete. • a. semantic / episodic • b. nonassociative / semantic • c. episodic / implicit • d. explicit / implicit

  21. Barbara remembers that Madrid is the capital of Spain, but she has no idea when or where she acquired this knowledge. Her ________ memory is accurate, but her ________ memory is incomplete. • a. semantic / episodic • b. nonassociative / semantic • c. episodic / implicit • d. explicit / implicit

  22. 08-01 W. W. Norton

  23. 08-02 W. W. Norton

  24. 08-04 W. W. Norton

  25. 08-05 THE ATKINSON AND SHRIFFINMODAL MODEL OF MEMORY

  26. 08-07 Baddeley, A., and Hitch, G., Working Memory, in Bower, G.H. (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 8. New York, Academic Press, 1974, pp. 47–89. Adapted by permission of the publisher.

  27. ________ is the process of acquiring new information, whereas ________ is the trace that results from this process and can be revealed at a later time. • a. Recall / recognition • b. Recognition / recall • c. Learning / memory • d. Memory / learning

  28. ________ is the process of acquiring new information, whereas ________ is the trace that results from this process and can be revealed at a later time. • a. Recall / recognition • b. Recognition / recall • c. Learning / memory • d. Memory / learning

  29. ___ refers to the processing of incoming information to be stored. • a. Retrieval • b. Recall • c. Encoding • d. Explicit memory

  30. ___ refers to the processing of incoming information to be stored. • a. Retrieval • b. Recall • c. Encoding • d. Explicit memory

  31. The encoding of information to be stored involves two stages: ________, in which inputs in sensory buffers and sensory analysis stages are registered, and then ________, in which a stronger representation for storage is created. • a. consolidation / storage • b. storage / retrieval • c. retrieval / acquisition • d. acquisition / consolidation

  32. The encoding of information to be stored involves two stages: ________, in which inputs in sensory buffers and sensory analysis stages are registered, and then ________, in which a stronger representation for storage is created. • a. consolidation / storage • b. storage / retrieval • c. retrieval / acquisition • d. acquisition / consolidation

  33. Research using the mismatch field (MMF), which is the magnetic equivalent of the mismatch negativity (MMN), has suggested that auditory sensory memory has a duration of about • a. 10 milliseconds. • b. 100 milliseconds. • c. 1 second. • d. 10 seconds.

  34. Research using the mismatch field (MMF), which is the magnetic equivalent of the mismatch negativity (MMN), has suggested that auditory sensory memory has a duration of about • a. 10 milliseconds. • b. 100 milliseconds. • c. 1 second. • d. 10 seconds.

  35. According to the modal model of memory, information that is currently held within short-term memory originates from • a. sensory memory. • b. working memory. • c. both sensory and working memory. • d. neither sensory nor working memory.

  36. According to the modal model of memory, information that is currently held within short-term memory originates from • a. sensory memory. • b. working memory. • c. both sensory and working memory. • d. neither sensory nor working memory.

  37. Which of the following best describes the flow of information in the Atkinson and Shiffrin modal model of memory? • a. Short-term storage → long-term storage → sensory memory • b. Short-term storage → sensory memory → long-term storage • c. Sensory memory→short-term storage →long-term storage • d. Sensory memory→long-term storage →short-term storage

  38. Which of the following best describes the flow of information in the Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) modal model of memory? • a. Short-term storage → long-term storage → sensory memory • b. Short-term storage → sensory memory → long-term storage • c. Sensory memory→short-term storage →long-term storage • d. Sensory memory→long-term storage →short-term storage

  39. Which of the following statements concerning types of memory in the modal model of memory is FALSE? • a. At any moment, there is more information in sensory memory than in short-term memory. • b. Some contents of sensory memory are selected via attention and next processed in long-term memory. • c. Sensory memory has a briefer duration than short-term memory. • d. Long-term memory has a longer duration than sensory memory.

  40. Which of the following statements concerning types of memory in the modal model of memory is FALSE? • a. At any moment, there is more information in sensory memory than in short-term memory. • b. Some contents of sensory memory are selected via attention and next processed in long-term memory. • c. Sensory memory has a briefer duration than short-term memory. • d. Long-term memory has a longer duration than sensory memory.

  41. The term ________ refers to a limited-capacity store that not only retains information over the short term (maintenance) but also permits the performance of mental operations with the contents of this store (manipulation). • a. working memory • b. short-term memory • c. sensory memory • d. long-term memory

  42. The term ________ refers to a limited-capacity store that not only retains information over the short term (maintenance) but also permits the performance of mental operations with the contents of this store (manipulation). • a. working memory • b. short-term memory • c. sensory memory • d. long-term memory

  43. Henry Gustav Molaison (1926 – 2008)

  44. 08-13 Fig. 6.1, Corkin et al., “H.M.’s medial temporal lobe lesion: Findings from magnetic resonance imaging,” The Journal of Neuroscience 17: 3964–3979, (1997). Adapted with permission of The Society for Neuroscience.

  45. HOW DO WE KNOW LONG-TERM MEMORIES MUST BE CONSOLIDATED OVER TIME?

  46. Memory Systems in the Brain