Identification Samples—Day 1 Sir Walter Raleigh/Roanoke: Sir Walter Raleigh was the founder of the colony of Roanoke. When he left the new colony in order to get supplies in England he was held up because Britain was at war with Spain. He came back a couple of years later only to find all of the settlers had vanished. The only clue was the word “Croatoan” carved into a tree. This failed attempt at settling in the New World cost Raleigh greatly and led to the use of joint-stock companies . . . House of Burgesses: the House of Burgesses was the first representative government in Virginia. It was similar to the British House of Commons. It established some political power/rights for the people (mostly rich plantation owners). The effect was that it gave colonists more freedom from England. It was a model for self-government in the new world.
Identification Samples—Day 2 Bacon’s Rebellion: Bacon’s Rebellion was a rebellion led by Nathaniel Bacon against the VA political leader William Berkeley. Bacon led the poor, landless freemen into battle against the natives, and burned the capital down. Berkeley regained control, but the plantation owners saw the danger of indentured servants who, after completing their contract, had no money or power. Planters would turn to slave labor, which would fuel the southern economy and the Civil War. Virginia Company of London: The VA Company of London was a joint stock organization that created the colony of Virginia. After successfully setting up a permanent colony, the VA Company of London gave their colonists the rights of a British citizen and allowed for the creation of self-government.
Essential Question What impact did the Great Awakening have on the development of American Culture?
Ben Franklin was one of the first Americans influenced by the Enlightenment. Became a deist, believing that God created the world, but then God stepped back & allowed the universe to operate through the laws of nature. Step 1: The Enlightenment comes to America
The Enlightenment Influences Religion As the Enlightenment began, people in the colonies began to question traditional religious beliefs. Puritans were not happy about the growing tolerance for other religious beliefs. Some religious leaders began to fear that secular (material) values were replacing spiritual values Religious leaders sought to bring people back to their religion/God
The Great Awakening began in the 1720s and 1730s in New Jersey and New England. It eventually swept through all colonies. People felt that religion was dry, dull, and boring. “Fire and brimstone” style of worship emerged stressing the importance of the individual’s relationship with God. The Great Awakening
Puritan minister Jonathan Edwards emphasized each person’s individual relationship with God. Preached that men and women were completely helpless and that they were dependent on God. He used fear of punishment to coax people to repent of their sins. “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
“The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider, or some loathsome insect, over the fire, abhors you, and is dreadfully provoked; his wrath towards you burns like fire; he looks upon you as worthy of nothing else, but to be cast into the fire; he is of purer eyes than to bear to have you in his sight; you are ten thousand times so abominable in his eyes as the most hateful venomous serpent is in ours. You have offended him infinitely more than ever a stubborn rebel did his prince: and yet ‘tis nothing but his hand that holds you from falling into the fire every moment: ‘tis to be ascribed to nothing else, that you did not go to hell the last night; that you was suffered to awake again in this world, after you closed your eyes to sleep: and there is no other reason to be given why you have not dropped into hell since you arose in the morning, but that God’s hand has held you up: there is no other reason to be given why you ha[ve]n’t gone to hell since you have sat here in the house of God, provoking his pure eyes by your sinful wicked manner of attending his solemn worship: yea, there is nothing else that is to be given as a reason why you don’t this very moment drop down into hell.”
American Pietism: The Great Awakening • Pietism was a religious revival focusing on emotional sermonsindividuals looked for a deep emotional connection to God in an attempt to respond to some of the Enlightenment ideas. • As the Awakening proceeded it undermined the allegiance to the legally established churches of the colonies. • Old Lights vs. New Lights Clip: God in America
George Whitefield – British minister who traveled to America. Used raw emotional sermons. Preached that godly lives will bring salvation. His strong voice caused many to cry & confess their sins. The Great Awakening
The Great Awakening Emotions and shrieking are signs of faith, sincerity and conversion Emphasis on feelings Salvation by faith alone--Not earned by good deeds Puritans Calm, Serious, and Formal Emphasis on reason/measured behavior A virtuous life
The Impact of the Great Awakening Church membership increased, temporarily. Led to creation of learning centers, such as Dartmouth, Brown, Rutgers, and Princeton. Challenged the authority and power of ministers and ultimately began to challenge the established powers of the land. United the colonies on a religious front, despite different faiths Birth of an American Culture…Why??
The Development of American Culture EnlightenmentGreat Awakening American Culture Reading: What is an American?