Genetics Rewind • Heredity is….? • How do traits get passed on? Think about this… • Why don’t all organisms have the same traits? • Can the frequency of a trait change?
“Walking” frogfish at large! • Click on the link below to watch the three videos on my website. In your journal write notes about the adaptations from the creatures that you see. Be sure to include adaptations for: • Movement • Finding Prey • Catching/Eating Prey • Watch Videos!
Check out the variation! • Same species (Indian Peafowl) Biodiversity Differences
Check out the variation! • Between populations
Answers • Organisms do NOT look the same… • The traits that you see in a population will change over time…. Why?
Why do organisms differ within the same species and between different populations? • All organisms live in habitats that contain their food, shelter, mates, and water BUT • Each organism has to obtain these things from their habitat to survive
Put a name to it… adaptations • Physical or behavioral traits that enhance survival • Organisms are born with these and they develop over generations through genetics • You can’t develop an adaptation in your lifetime!
Ms. Vonderheide I’m about this tall….no matter how much yoga I do, I will never be as big as Andre the Giant!
Put a name to it… Natural Selection • Changes in genetic traits over many generations • These changes are often due to changes in available resources • Sometimes we make these changes on purpose
You mean I get to pick? • Think about farmers and puppies. • But don’t think about chickens… Selective Breeding • Humans breed only certain parents toproduce a desired trait in the next generation
Wild Strawberries Write this example in your notes! Selectively Bred Strawberries What trait were farmers breeding?
Puppies Same species, but very different traits.
Can things go wrong? • Sometimes undesirable traits appear: • Killer bees aka Africanized Honey Bees (AHBs) • Bred to produce more honey more efficiently than European breeds • Unfortunately, they inadvertently also bred a trait that causes them to be very defensive of their hive • Many large dogs are prone to hip dysplasia • Pure white Great Danes are usually deaf Oops!
Types of Natural Adaptations • Organisms have adaptations for: • A Changing or Harsh Environment • Movement • Finding/Capturing Food • Body Types • Avoidance/Camouflage • Reproduction • Living in Groups • Behaviors and more…
Changing Environment Animals develop behaviors to help them survive: • Eating habits • Migration • Hibernation • Circadian Rhythms
Body Types Endoskeleton Exoskeleton
Living in Groups • Living in a group helps animals survive, by protecting one another, and working together to find food • Animal behavior is instinctive and each animal is preprogrammed to perform a specific function
Behaviors Instictive: Born with them behaviors Learned: Experience leads to changes in behavior • Fight or Flight • Maternal Instincts • Someone’s Watching You… • Trial and Error • Conditioning • Insight Learning Most animal behaviors are characteristics that improve survival or reproduction. These behaviors are triggered by both internal and external stimuli!
Plants are Adapted too... Internal External • Xylem and Phloem • Distribute materials • Bulbs • Store glucose for growth • Large leaves • Absorb sunlight in dark areas • Cactus Roots • Shallow to absorb water quickly