Human Evolution (A) Pan troglodytes, chimpanzee, modern(B) Australopithecus africanus, STS 5, 2.6 My(C) Australopithecus africanus, STS 71, 2.5 My(D) Homo habilis, KNM-ER 1813, 1.9 My(E) Homo habilis, OH24, 1.8 My(F) Homo rudolfensis, KNM-ER 1470, 1.8 My(G) Homo erectus, Dmanisi cranium D2700, 1.75 My (H) Homo ergaster (early H. erectus), KNM-ER 3733, 1.75 My(I) Homo heidelbergensis, "Rhodesia man," 300,000 - 125,000 y(J) Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, La Ferrassie 1, 70,000 y(K) Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, La Chappelle-aux-Saints, 60,000 y(L) Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, Le Moustier, 45,000 y(M) Homo sapiens sapiens, Cro-Magnon I, 30,000 y(N) Homo sapiens sapiens, modern
Darwin & the missing link Charles Darwin • Charles Darwin • “Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of certain number of facts will certainly reject my theory” • On the origin of species, 1859
Evolution of Bipedalism • Anatomical changes • Neck (1), chest (2), lower back (3), hips and pelvis (4), thighs (5), knees (6), feet (7) • Theories • Tool use and bipedalism (Darwin/Washburn) • Energy efficiency and bipedalism (Isbell/Young) • Radiator theory (Falk) • Body temperature and bipedalism (Wheeler) • Habitat variability and bipedalism (Potts) • Reproduction and bipedalism (Lovejoy) • Canine reduction and bipedalism (Jolly) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SPit_Mca8dM
Hominin Evolution • Ardipithecus ramidus 4.4 - ? mya • A. anamensis 4.2 - 3.9 • A. afarensis 4.2 - 2.5 • A. bahrelghazali 3.5 - 3.0 • A. africanus 3.5 - 2.5 • P. aethiopicus 2.7 - 2.3 • A. garhi 2.5 - ? • P. boisei 2.3 - 1.3 • P. robustus 2.0 - 1.0 • Bipedalism • Tools • Language Reconstruction of Australopithecine
Australopithecinces Gracile Australopithecines Robust Australopithecines
Australopithecine environments Deinotherium ("terrible beast"), also called the Hoe tusker, was a gigantic prehistoric relative of modern-day elephants. Third larges land mammal known to have existed. Dinofelis ("terrible cat") is a genus of saber-toothed cat.
The first of our genus: Early Homo Homo floresiensis The Hobbit http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vJU8KQAHvw
Hominin Evolution • Major Homo advances: • Brain size • Better bipedalism • Hunting • Fire (H. erectus) • Tools • Oldowon (H. habilis) • Acheulean (H. erectus) • Mousterian (H. heidelbergensis) • Solutrean (H. sapiens) • Built shelters (H. heidelbergensis) • Clothing (H. neandertalensis) • Language (Neandertals?)
Homo habilis • 612 cc brain • 2.3 - 1.6 mya • first toolmaker • prognathic face, brow ridge • probable meat-eater • possibly arboreal • discovered in 1960 by Leakeys Artist rendition of H. habilis. ER-1813 – Homo habilis
Oldowan Tool Industry The Oldowan is the first known industrial complex in prehistory. It takes its name from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania Oldowan tool use is estimated to have begun about 2.5 million years ago (mya), lasting to as late as 0.5 mya. It is thought that Oldowan tools were produced by several species of hominids ranging from Australopithecus to early Homo. • Chopper with simple edge • Chopping tool • Unretouched biface
H. habilis vs. H. erectus • Finds in east Africa indicate that Homo habilis was not very different from the australopithecines in terms of body size and shape. • The earliest Homo erectus remains indicate rapid biological change. • H. erectus was considerably taller and had a larger brain than H. habilis.
Homo (ergaster) erectus • 1891 - Eugene Dubois discovers H. erectus in Java • Dubois calls it Pithecanthropus erectus initially, also dubbed “Java Man” • Dates from 1.9 mya to 27,000 years B.P. • 994 cc brain size (compare to 612 for H. habilis) • Acheulean tool industry • All finds in E. Asia are H. erectus, everywhere else is called H. ergaster. Photograph of Nariokotome boy, an early Homo erectus found near Lake Turkana, Kenya.
Turkana Boy Homo ergaster Turkana Boy (KNM-WT 15000): a nearly complete skeleton of an 11 or 12 year old boy who died approximately 1.5 million years ago near Lake Turkana in Kenya by Kamoya Kimeu and Richard Leakey in 1984.
Why was H. erectus so successful? Less hair on body = wearing of furs, other clothing. Wearing of furs = ability to live further north. Quick adaptation to environment without physical changes. Culture is main reason H. erectus was so successful organization for hunting ability to protect against predators control of fire? possible campsites tools (Acheulean industry) Homo ergaster – 1.9mya to 27k yBP Distribution of H. erectus
Acheulean Tools • Acheulean tools are typically found with Homo erectus remains. • It was the dominant technology for the vast majority of human history and more than one million years ago it was Acheulean tool users who left Africa to first successfully colonize Eurasia.
Homo neanderthalensis • discovered in the Neander Valley (Tal) near Dusseldorf, 1856 • massive brain--about 1,400cc on average • large torso, short limbs, broad nasal passages • later remains show decrease in robustness of the front teeth and face, suggesting use of tools replaced teeth • retained occipital torus, some mid-facial prognathism Range of Homo neanderthalensis The skull of the classic Neandertal found in 1908 at La Chapelle-aux-Saints. First reconstruction of Neanderthal man. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5OJcS3y3mlI&feature=SeriesPlayList&p=39B8670A9074CF60&index=0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CgEFoY-hoT4&feature=SeriesPlayList&p=39B8670A9074CF60&index=2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pKs1Q7f1Uzg&feature=SeriesPlayList&p=39B8670A9074CF60&index=3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o589CAu73UM&feature=SeriesPlayList&p=39B8670A9074CF60&index=5
Neandertal Culture • Homesites – In caves, also in the open (near rivers, framed with wood and covered with skins) • Burial – Is there evidence of purposeful burial and ritual? • Language – Could Neandertals talk or not? • Tools – Mousterian tradition Top: Reconstruction of Neandertal burial from Shanidar cave Bottom: Mousterian tools
What happened to Neandertals? • H. neanderthalensis coexisted with H. sapiens for at least 20,000 years, perhaps as long as 60,000 years • What happened? • Neandertals interbred with H. sapiens • Neandertals were killed off by H. sapiens • H. sapiens drove Neandertals into extinction by competition Neanderthal existence http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRHzOt-kQok&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ndwzAw8fchU&feature=related Neanderthal versus Homo sapiens http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3LVp4MOh-gc
Homo sapiens • Archaic – 150,000 to 35,000 years BP • Earliest members of the species Homo sapiens with different subspecies such as H.s. neanderthalensis or H. s. idaltu • Modern – 50,000 years BP to present • Fully modern behavior& anatomy becomes prominent. • Ritual burying; reproduced tools of bone & antlers; fishing (costal sites show evidence of fishing after 50k ya). • First hominids to reach Australia (language?). • Cultural universals emerge: art, music, religion. • Sometimes called Homo sapiens sapiens http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YdYH8m6HOCo&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pRsrhhjDSQM&feature=related
Modern Homo Sapiens • Regional-Continuity Model (Milford Wolpoff, UMich) • Humans evolved more or less simultaneously across the entire Old World from several ancestral populations. • Rapid-Replacement Model (Chris Stringer, NHM London) • Humans evolved only once--in Africa from H. heidelbergensis ancestors--and then migrated throughout the Old World, • replacing their archaic predecessors. Also called the “Out of Africa” and “Killer Ape” hypothesis. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doF4sNrQtmg&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MIQNzbd4-RY
Upper Palaeolithic – Hotbed of Culture • 40 – 10k yBP • Shelters • 15,000 yBP Ukraine • Some made with mammoth bones • Wood, leather working; carpentry • Tools • From cores to blades • Specialization • Composite tools • Bow and arrow • Domestication of dogs • Gathering rather than hunting became the mainstay of human economies. Top: Straw Hut Left: Mammoth bone hut Bottom: Tool progression
Early H. sapiens Culture • Art • Traces of art found in beads, carvings, and paintings • Cave paintings in Spain and southern France showed a marked degree of skill • Female figurines • 27,000 to 22,000 years B.P. (Western Europe to Siberia) • Called “venuses,” these figurines depicted women with large breasts and broad hips • Perhaps it was an example of an ideal type, or perhaps an expression of a desire for fertility or abundance. Venus of Willendorf. Discovered in 1908 in Austria and dated to approximately 23,000 years ago.
Archaic H. sapiens Culture Cave paintings from 20,000 years ago at Vallon-Pont-d’Arc in southern France (left) and from Lascaux, in southwest France • Cave paintings • Mostly animals on bare walls • Subjects were animals favored for their meat and skins • Human figures were rarely drawn due to taboos and fears that it would somehow harm others http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oSHKqX8_pqU&feature=related
Social Organization • Hunter-gatherer analogy • Small group, low population density, nomadism, kinship groups • Migration • North America was the last colonized by hominids. • Beringia (land bridge) between Russia and Alaska • Asian origin of Native Americans • 30,000 to 12,000 years B.P. was first migration