Return to ACA Return to Portfolio TOC (link will only work if in “view show” mode Brown vs.The Board of Education Dave Baniszewski Mike Bryant Helen Reyes David Rutledge EDUC 845 Liberty University
The escalation of segregation in the South began immediately after the Civil War.
The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, along with the two Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875 and the various Enforcements Acts of the early 1870s, curtailed the ability of southern whites to formally deprive blacks of their civil rights.
Rutherford B. Hayes The decade of the 1880s was characterized by mob lynching‘s and a vicious system of convict prison farms and chain gains
In 1890 Louisiana passes the infamous Jim Crow law mandating separate but equal accommodations for blacks and whites
By 1910, every state of the former Confederacy had adopted laws that segregated all aspects of life wherein blacks and whites might socially mingle or come into contact.
Impoverished and often illiterate southern blacks were in a weak position in the 1890s for confronting the racist culture of Jim Crow.
W.E.B. Du Bois By 1905, the issue of how to most effectively deal with Jim Crow came to a head in the debate between the followers of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois. In the 1930s, the NAACP, began to focus more of its attention on a campaign to challenge segregation
After the Civil War, the southern states scrambled to recover and keep the public school system alive. Ultimately this effort created a dual educational system based on race. Schools were anything but equal
Case Name: Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896)Plaintiffs: Homer Plessy Defendants: John H. Ferguson, judge of the criminal District Court for the parish of Orleans Location: New Orleans, Louisiana Year : Argued: April 13, 1896 Decided: May 18, 1896 Case Name: State of Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, 305 U.S. 337 (1938) Plaintiffs: Lloyd Gaines Defendants: CANADA, REGISTRAR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI Location: Missouri Year: Argued: November 9, 1938 Decided: December 12, 1938 Case Name: Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County, 175 U.S. 528 (1899) Plaintiffs: Cumming, Harper and Ladeveze Defendants: The Board of Education of Richmond County and Charles S. Bohler, tax collector. Location: Richmond County Georgia Year: Argued: October 30, 1899 Decided: December 18, 1899 Case Name: Gong Lum v. Rice, 275 U.S. 78 (1927) Plaintiffs: Gong Lum and Martha Lum Defendants: Superintendent of Education of the State of Mississippi Location: Mississippi Year: Argued: October 12, 1927 Decided: November 21, 1927 196
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas • Argued: Dec. 8, 1952 • Reargued: Dec. 7, 1953 • Decided: May 17, 1954 • Key Players • Thurgood Marshall • Rev. Oliver Brown • Linda Brown • Chief Justice Earl Warren
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Several Cases Were Combined into One • Delaware – Belton v Gebhart • Kansas – Brown v Board of Education • South Carolina – Briggs v Elliot • Virginia – Davis v County School Board of Prince Edward County • Washington, DC – Bolling v Melvin Sharpe
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas “Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.”
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KansasThe Issue • Schools approached equality in terms of buildings, curricula, qualifications, and teacher salaries. • Nevertheless, despite “equality” of objective factors, intangible issues foster and maintain inequality.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas • This case was not simply about children and education. • This new law had far reaching social and ideological implications that continue to be felt throughout the nation and the world. • The struggle for Human Rights throughout the world can trace its roots back to this case. • Reinforced the supremacy of the power of the people in protecting natural rights from arbitrary limitations imposed by governments.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas • The case did not abolish segregation in other public areas, such as restaurants and restrooms, nor did it place a time frame for implementation of the law. • Other pioneers would take up the torch of freedom and carry on the challenge.
Court Cases & Legislation • March Griggs v. Duke Power Company • Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education • Palmer v. Thompson • ERA • Title IX Education Amendments
Court Cases • San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez • State Constitutional Challenges • Public School Race Riots • Education for All Handicapped Children Act
Court Cases • Affirmative Action • Brown III
Reagan Administration • Emergency School Aid Act • Los Angeles • Segregation • Desegregation • Segregation Again
1988 • Desegregation’s High Water Mark
Board of Education v. Dowell – 1991 • The Slide Begins
Survey Says….. • Don’t Do as I Do, Do As I Say
Segregated? Not in My Neighborhood! • Where Segregation & Integration Occur
School Segregation: Current Trends Regular Public School Enrollments by Race/Ethnicity and Region, 2000 - 2001 Reprinted with permission from the Civil Rights Project, Harvard University
School Segregation: Current Trends Racial Composition of Schools Attended by the Average Student of Each Race, 2001 - 2001
Signs of Hope? • Grutter v. Bollinger
Segregation is evil because it scars the soul of both the segregated and the segregator…. It gives the segregated a false sense of inferiority and it gives the segregator a false sense of superiority. …It does something to the soul….this is why segregation is utterly evil and utterly un-Christian. It substitutes an "I/It" relationship for the "I/Thou" relationship. Martin Luther King Jr.