1 / 23

Democracy on the African Continent: Colonialism, Tribalism and the Future

Democracy on the African Continent: Colonialism, Tribalism and the Future. Country Focus: Nigeria. Democracy . Is democracy an instrument? A tool for achieving value based goals? Human rights Justice Is democracy dependent on the emergence of stable, diversified economies?

Télécharger la présentation

Democracy on the African Continent: Colonialism, Tribalism and the Future

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Democracy on the African Continent: Colonialism, Tribalism and the Future Country Focus: Nigeria

  2. Democracy • Is democracy an instrument? A tool for achieving value based goals? • Human rights • Justice • Is democracy dependent on the emergence of stable, diversified economies? • What is the role of an independent civil society?

  3. Status – Liberal Democracy Commitment: • Benin • Botswana • Mali • Madagascar • Mauritius • Namibia • South Africa

  4. Country Status: Economic Reform, Multi-party Elections • Burkina Faso • Malawi • Mozambique • Senegal • Tanzania • Uganda • Zambia

  5. Country Status: Development without Democracy • Burundi • Eritrea • Gabon • Gambia • Niger • Ethiopia

  6. Country Status: near collapse ?? “failed” ?? • Angola ??? • Cameroon • Chad • Congo • Nigeria ??? • Kenya • Sierra Leone • Somalia • Sudan • Zimbabwe • http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2009/06/22/2009_failed_states_index_interactive_map_and_rankings

  7. Economic & Political Liberalization • Is democratization the only solution to systemic political crisis? • Are there economic alternatives beyond liberal market economies? • Does democracy spring from economic and social pluralism? • For some this is indeed the true explanation for the global spread of democracy. • How would these scholars address China? • Clearly there is a connection but it is not necessarily causal (Thus, liberal economies may be a necessary condition of democratization but they are clearly NOT sufficient conditions).

  8. Western models applied to Africa? • Western policymakers handicapped by their fundamental misunderstanding of African nations, the conflicts, the needs, wants, demands of citizens. • Equivalent to statement “Ronald Reagan’s foreign policy caused the collapse of the Soviet Union”. • Democratic formation is not linear.

  9. History and Political Culture: Decolonization and Nationhood • “The scramble of Africa” • Decolonization and the creation of national borders for independence occurred quickly and according to the convenience of colonial powers. • Result is a continent-wide structure of countries whose citizens have little reason to identify with one another (nationhood) • Cultural, economic, environmental, realities were ignored • Today extremely diverse groups of people must co-habit as “citizens” • Significant barrier to growth of a common identity (nation)…no “glue”, no common culture.

  10. Civil Society in Africa? • The autonomous sphere between the state and the family or individual. This sphere limits governmental action (stops the entropy). • Artificial national borders enhance cultural and linguistic disunity…making it virtually impossible for an “autonomous sphere” to emerge. • Some local level groups: age, ethnicity, religion, self-help, local issue groups. • No systematic integration of these groups into the economy (subsistence production continues).

  11. Explanation for absence of civil society? • Predatory state in post-colonial era has pushed people out of a broader society. • Tribalism, ethnicity, kinship enhanced. • These structures are so discrete that they cannot produce a broad base of support for anything => no chance for democracy. • Modern tribalism the dominant organizational form in Africa today. • Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda, Chad, Burundi • Chronic violence based in tribalism, ethnicity, kinship

  12. Accountability via communication. Education, citizen identification of public versus private. Pro-modernization values. Africans dispersed in rural communities. Absence of education, no systematic national identification. Anti-modernization values (subsistence). Requirements of Democracy – Barriers in Africa Religion provides social/economic foundation of traditional societies. Differences of faith are not reconcilable. This supercedes government action and reinforces ethnic/regional cleavages. Extreme poverty keeps other citizens from participation in the political system.

  13. Economic re-adjustment? • IMF programs have forced structural adjustment in many African nations. • In many cases programs have enjoyed some success but still citizens remain poor, and large numbers of citizens are poorer than before. • Ex: Tanzania 50% of population at $1/day. • Conclusion: economic development before democratization? • Sources of Africa’s problems? Itself, international community, international trade system (complexity).

  14. Africa and the World • Increasingly marginalized in global economy. • Debt increases with few options for reduction. • International community pushing democracy but not promoting rational economic development, i.e, 50% of a national population cannot stay in poverty if democracy is to stabilize and expand. • Equality of opportunity non-existent. • Personal rule emerged post-independence, lacks institutional foundation.

  15. Nigeria • Population 149 million • Independence 1960 • Democratic transition: 1979, 1989, 1995, 1999 • President: Umaru Yar'Adua (2007) • Acting: Goodluck Jonathan • Religion: 50% Muslim, 40% Christian, 10% indigenous beliefs • Primary export: oil

  16. Political Culture: Geography and Ethnicity • 250 ethnic groups • Size varies • Historically complex groups of peoples who interacted in trade, cultural diffusion, war for centuries • Current groups are geographically concentrated • Hausa-Fulani (north) • Igbo (southeast) • Yoruba (southwest)

  17. Political Culture: History • 1800s dominated by various foreign groups • Goal of occupying groups: resource extraction and cheap labor (slave trade) • 1807-1850 slave trade eliminated; Trade in goods continued • 1914-1960 British colony • Colonial government inappropriate to Nigerian political situation, i.e., tribal divisions. • More authoritarian approach on the part of British authorities • One set of rules for the British; Second set for the Nigerians • Consequence is conflicting message about democracy • Democratic institutions • Authoritarian political culture

  18. Religion • Religion reflects Muslim/Christian split from north to south • Challenges: traditional/modern?; 100s of traditions! • Hausa-Fulani • Islam • Militaristic • Northern region politically dominant • Yoruba • Christian (some Muslims or indigenous belief systems) • Southwest region, part of the commercially dominant south • Igbo • Southeast region, part of the commercially dominant south • Christian

  19. Nigerian Nationalism • Return of freed slaves • World war II veterans • Educated returnees • Civil violence experiences • Coups prior to Biafran War • Biafran War coalition • Continued national recruitment by military • Domination of officer corps by elites

  20. Effects of Fragmentation • Nigerians oriented toward political involvement are identified by • Exposure to formal education • Involvement in modern economy (participant versus subject or parochial orientations) • Pattern of involvement - clientelism • Limited legitimacy of opposition • High efficacy but low trust • Political corruption problematic • Two dominant democratic orientations: • Freedom and political accountability

  21. Political Socialization • Agents of socialization • Family, nuclear or extended (polygamous in the north) • Schools, valued as necessary to advancement (community builders) • Language, linguistic pluralism • Newspapers, primary source of political information but limited by illiteracy • Mass media and propaganda – radio critical source • The state – launches propaganda • Urbanization • Religion

  22. Political Recruitment • Politicization of the military • Recruitment of officers from university graduates • Recruitment according to ethnic group • Transfer of officer corps after Biafran war • 1966 independence movement of oil rich eastern region • Leadership of military and professed belief in civilian rule • Backing by administrative class • Exclusion of strangers

  23. Nigeria and the Niger River Valley

More Related