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Chapter 19: Waste

Chapter 19: Waste . Section 1: Solid Waste. The Generation of Waste. Every year, the US generates more than 10 billion metric tons of solid waste. (has doubled since the 1960s) 10,000,000,000,000 dictionaries Solid Waste: any discarded solid material.

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Chapter 19: Waste

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  1. Chapter 19: Waste Section 1: Solid Waste

  2. The Generation of Waste • Every year, the US generates more than 10 billion metric tons of solid waste. (has doubled since the 1960s) • 10,000,000,000,000 dictionaries • Solid Waste: any discarded solid material. • Includes: everything from junk mail to coffee grounds to cars.

  3. Space and Waste • Many towns are running out of space to dispose of waste people create. • Example: barge 1987 from Islip, NY http://www.nytimes.com/video/booming/100000002206073/voyage-of-the-mobro-4000.html

  4. Population and Waste • Earth’s human population and amount of waste we produce is growing. • Amount of land available per person is shrinking. • Hunter Gatherers vs. People Today…what kind of waste was created then?

  5. Not All Wastes Are Equal • Problems are caused by amount of solid waste and type of waste. • Biodegradable: can be broken down by biological processes (paper, cotton fibers, leather) • Nonbiodegradable: cannot be broken down by biological processes (polyester, nylon, plastic)

  6. Plastic Problems • Made from petroleum and natural gas. • Molecular chains not found in nature. • Cannot be broken down by natural processes.

  7. Types of Solid Waste • Municipal Waste: what we throw out on a day-to-day basis. • Manufacturing Waste: computers, audio equipment, printers • Mining Waste: waste rock, minerals, topsoil • Digital Dump, Illegal Electronic Waste Trade Africa (2:45) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a0xpRk7MYNg • Junkyard Planet (2:20) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RaqjJ9y-D1w • Cities of Trash (1:23) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_BAnaFUWFjk

  8. Municipal Solid Waste • 2% of total solid waste • Would fill a convoy of garbage trucks that would stretch around the Earth about 6 times! • Amount of MSW grows faster than mining or agricultural waste.

  9. Solid Waste from Manufacturing, Mining, and Agriculture • Manufacturing waste: scrap metal, plastics, paper, sludge, ash. • Mining: rock and minerals left over from excavating. • Left, dumped in oceans, or used to refill mines. • Agricultural: biodegradable, but fertilizers and pesticides make it hard to dispose of.

  10. Solid Waste Management • Most municipal waste in US is sent to landfill. • Some waste is incinerated. • Some waste is recycled (28% presently vs. 6.6% in 1970.)

  11. Landfill • More than 50% of municipal and manufacturing solid wasted ends up in landfills. • Landfill: permanent waste-disposal facility where wastes are put in the ground and covered with soil or plastic.

  12. Problems with Landfills • Leachate: liquid that has passed through compacted solid waste in a landfill and contains chemicals. • Methane: produced by organic waste decomposing where there is no oxygen. (highly flammable)

  13. Safeguarding Landfills • Must be lined with clay and plastic liners • Must have systems for collecting and treating leachate.

  14. Building More Landfills • The EPA estimates that the active landfills in 20 states will be filled to capacity within 10 years.

  15. Incinerators • Incinerated materials can take up less space, but they can also produce toxic gases. • Incinerators must have special air pollution control devices which do not remove all toxins. Video Trip Landfill, Pearson (6:56) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mA608GJ-EzM

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