Download
identity and conflict in the balkans n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Identity and Conflict in the Balkans PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Identity and Conflict in the Balkans

Identity and Conflict in the Balkans

585 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Identity and Conflict in the Balkans

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Identity and Conflict in the Balkans Fifth Week, Thursday

  2. Announcements • Study Guide • News

  3. Film Today: Tito and Me • Final remarks • Letter, Catholic Church • Final speech • Suicide of Raja • Depiction of Tito • Zoran learns about life • Cruelty of adults • Limitations of adults • Meaning of friendship

  4. Milovan Djilas (in Kaplan) • Right-hand of Tito in late 40s, early 50s • Importance in break with Stalin • Change in views: dissident • Imprisonment; disgrace in 60s • Literary, cultural output • Died in 1995 • Significance for Serbian culture, politics

  5. Kaplan Chapter 4: White City • Beograd (Belgrade) • Danube and Sava Rivers (Old Fortress) • Border of two empires

  6. Reading-Discussion Assignment • Ivo Andrić’s Bridge on the Drina • Through page 101 for exam

  7. History of the bridge • 16th century • Years to build: follow the seasons • Slave labor (early years)

  8. Cultures, hierarchies, identities • References to conversions • Tension between Christians and Muslims • History and myth • Power struggles • Violence

  9. Next Kaplan Chapters • Old Serbia • Albania • Macedonia • Beograd

  10. Serbia: Issues • Religion: Serbian Orthodoxy as strong part of identity • Spirituality, suffering, martyrdom as themes: Kosovo Field • Importance of monasteries: Gračanica

  11. Politics • Svetozvar Marović, President of S-M • President Boris Tadić of Serbia • Political issues with Serbian PM Vojislav Koštunica

  12. Long literary and cultural heritage Cultural-political meaning: lost battle must be avenged; forces of good vs. evil • Be patient; accept suffering; revolt; redemption

  13. Albania • 20th Century: World Wars, Tito and Hoxha • Post-Tito: Kosovo again

  14. History of Albania • The Sahat Kulla (Clock Tower) and Ethem Bey's Mosque \ • Tirana (capital)

  15. Albania • Population 3.5 million • Illyrian heritage (pre-Greek) • Occupied territory long before Slavs • Distinctive language • Centuries of Turkish occupation • Occupied Kosovo, but never held it long • Complex role in WWII • Very secular state • Animosity based on memory of massacres

  16. Ottoman Empire, mid-16th

  17. Ottoman domination 1479-1912 • 1878 Albanian League begins struggle for independence (in Kosova) • Uprisings in 1881, 1910, 1912 • Declaration of Independence in 1912 • Territory ceded to Serbia in 1913 by London Ambassadors’ Conference

  18. WWI-WWII • Occupied by Greece, France, Italy, Serbia, Austria-Hungary • Enver Hoxha (Communist) led resistance in 1940s, WWII • People’s Republic in 1946 • Maintained independence and isolation from world powers, with special Chinese connections

  19. After Communism • Hoxha died in 1985 • Communist rule ended in 1992 • Severe economic problems • Migration of workers abroad • Territory claims by Greece (which calls part of Albania Northern Epiros) • Support for Kosova and Macedonian Albanians

  20. Facts • Population: 3.2 million (UN, 2004) • Capital: Tirana • Major religion: Islam • Life expectancy: 71 years (men), 77 years (women) (UN) • Main exports: Chromium and chrome products, processed foodstuffs

  21. Politics • President: Alfred Moisiu • Prime minister: Sali Berisha

  22. Enver Hoxha

  23. Albania

  24. Greater Albania

  25. Kaplan Chapter 3: Macedonia • Complex stories • Competing nationalisms • Common elements: hatred and fear

  26. Ottoman Domination • Conquered in 1389 • 19th century: Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria make claims on Macedonian territory • Independence movements around turn of century (1900) • Partitioned by Treaty of London in 1913: Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Albania

  27. Before and After Partition (1913)

  28. Post-WWI • Greece actively promoting “Greek-ness” of Macedonia • Numerous independence activities • WWII: Nazi Bulgaria occupied Macedonia • Resistance efforts: independent Macedonia (in part) • Not recognized by Greece

  29. Republic of Macedonia 1991 • Name issues with Greece • Officially “The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” • Problems with Albania too: origins, original territory rights • Refugee problems

  30. Leaders Today • President: Branko Crvenkovski • Prime minister: Vlado Buckovski

  31. Skopje: Bridge over Vardar

  32. Churches

  33. Mosques

  34. Topics (Kaplan) • 1877 Treaty of San Stefano • 1878 Congress of Berlin • Gotse Delchev • Balkan wars, 1912 and 1913 • WWI • Bulgaria and Bulgarians

  35. Film: Before the Rain • "Before the Rain refers to the feeling of heavy expectation, when the skies are pregnant with the possibility of an outburst, when the people are silent, waiting for a tragedy of cleansing," writer/director Milcho Manchevski • 1994; directed by Milcho Manchevski • Rade Šerbedžia • Macedonia-Great Britain

  36. Milcho Manchevski

  37. Awards • Released in 1995 • Independent Spirit Award, • Best Foreign Film, 1996 • Oscar nominee, 1995; Golden Lion for the Best Movie, Venice, 1995 • 30 awards overall

  38. Film Before the Rain • Novice Kiril discovers visitor • Murder suspect-fugitive-Albanian • Relatives of victim—search • Violence • Suspense

  39. Rain-2 • Kiril and Zamira are discovered • Kiril is kicked out of the monastery • Kiril and Zemfira leave together • Zemfira’s grandfather and brothers/cousins find them • Zemfira tries to leave with Kiril and is killed by her brother

  40. Rain – 3 • Section section (“Faces”; first was “Words”) • Anne showers, weeping • Anne finds out she’s pregnant • Anne meets her mother • Alexander joins them • Alex and Anne in the taxi

  41. Rain – 4 • Be ready for narrative surprises, shifts in chronology • Violence continues: why?

  42. Politics • President: Alfred Moisiu • Prime minister: Fatos Nano

  43. Map of Balkan Peninsula