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c hapter 6

c hapter 6. international trade and investment. Chapter Objectives 1. Understand the motivation for international trade Summarize and discuss the differences among the classical country-based theories of international trade

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c hapter 6

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  1. chapter 6 international trade and investment

  2. Chapter Objectives 1 • Understand the motivation for international trade • Summarize and discuss the differences among the classical country-based theories of international trade • Use the modern firm-based theories of international trade to describe global strategies adopted by businesses 6-2

  3. Chapter Objectives 2 • Describe and categorize the different forms of international investment • Explain the reasons for foreign direct investment • Summarize how supply, demand, and political factors influence foreign direct investment 6-3

  4. Trade Trade is the voluntary exchange of goods, services, assets, or money between one person or organization and another. Internationaltrade is trade between residents of two countries. 6-4

  5. Figure 6.1 Growth of World Merchandise Exports 6-5

  6. Figure 6.2 Sources of World’s Merchandise Exports, 2004 6-6

  7. Trade Theories Classical country-based Firm-based 6-7

  8. Classical Country-Based Trade Theories • Mercantilism • Absolute Advantage • Comparative Advantage • Comparative Advantage with Money • Relative Factor Endowments 6-8

  9. Mercantilism • A country’s wealth is measured by its holdings of gold and silver • A country’s goal should be to enlarge holdings of gold and silver by • Promoting exports • Discouraging imports 6-9

  10. Disadvantages of Mercantilism • Confuses the acquisition of treasure with the acquisition of wealth • Weakens the country because it robs individuals of the ability • To trade freely • To benefit from voluntary exchanges • Forces countries to produce products it would otherwise not in order to minimize imports 6-10

  11. Protectionism • Modern mercantilism (neomercantilists) • American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations • Textile manufacturers • Steel companies • Sugar growers • Peanut farmers 6-11

  12. Absolute Advantage • Export those goods and services for which a country is more productive than other countries • Import those goods and services for which other countries are more productive than it is 6-12

  13. Comparative Advantage • Produce and export those goods and services for which it is relatively more productive than other countries • Import those goods and services for which other countries are relatively more productive than it is 6-13

  14. Differences between Comparative and Absolute Advantage • Absolute versus relative productivity differences • Comparative advantage incorporates the concept of opportunity cost • Value of what is given up to get the good 6-14

  15. Comparative Advantage with Money • One is better off specializing in what one does relatively best • Produce and export those goods and services one is relatively best able to produce • Buy other goods and services from people who are better at producing them 6-15

  16. Relative Factor Endowments • Heckscher-Ohlin Theory • What determines the products for which a country will have a comparative advantage? • Factor endowments vary among countries • Goods differ according to the types of factors that are used to produce them 6-16

  17. Figure 6.3 U.S. Imports and Exports, 1947: The Leontief Paradox 6-17

  18. Development of Firm-Based Theories • Growing importance of MNCs • Inability of the country-based theories to explain and predict the existence and growth of intraindustry trade • Failure of Leontief and others to empirically validate country-based Heckscher-Ohlin theory 6-18

  19. Firm-Based Trade Theories • Country Similarity Theory • Product Life Cycle Theory • Global Strategic Rivalry Theory • Porter’s National Competitive Advantage 6-19

  20. Country Similarity Theory • Explains the phenomenon of intraindustry trade (as opposed to interindustry trade) • Trade between two countries of goods produced by the same industry • Japan exports Toyotas to Germany • Germany exports BMWs to Japan 6-20

  21. Product Life Cycle Theory • Describes the evolution of marketing strategies • Stages • New product • Maturing product • Standardized product 6-21

  22. Stages in the Product Life Cycle New Product Stage Maturing Product Stage Standardized Product Stage 6-22

  23. Figure 6.4a The International Product Life Cycle: Innovating Firm’s Country 6-23

  24. Figure 6.4b The International Product Life Cycle: Other Industrialized Countries 6-24

  25. Figure 6.4c The International Product Life Cycle: Less Developed Countries 6-25

  26. Global Strategic Rivalry Theory • Firms struggle to develop sustainable competitive advantage • Advantage provides ability to dominate global marketplace • Focus: strategic decisions firms use to compete internationally 6-26

  27. Sustaining Competitive Advantage • Owning intellectual property rights • Investing in research and development • Achieving economies of scale or scope • Exploiting the experience curve 6-27

  28. Porter’s Diamond of National Competitive Advantage Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry Factor Conditions Demand Conditions Related and Supporting Industries 6-28

  29. National Competitive Advantage The intense competitiveness of Japanese market forces manufacturers to continually develop and fine-tune new products. 6-29

  30. Country-Based Theories Country is unit of analysis Emerged prior to WWII Developed by economists Explain interindustry trade Mercantilism Absolute advantage Comparative advantage Relative factor endowments Firm-Based Theories Firm is unit of analysis Emerged after WWII Developed by professors Explain intraindustry trade Country similarity theory Product life cycle Global strategic rivalry National competitive advantage Figure 6.6 Summary of International Trade 6-30

  31. Types of International Investments • Does the investor seek an active management role in the firm or merely a return from a passive investment? • Foreign Direct Investment • Portfolio Investment 6-31

  32. Figure 6.7 Stock of Foreign Direct Investment, by Recipient 6-32

  33. Table 6.4a Sources of FDI in the U.S. 6-33

  34. Table 6.4b Destinations of FDI for the U.S. 6-34

  35. International Investment Theories • Ownership Advantages • Internalization • Dunning’s Eclectic Theory 6-35

  36. Ownership Advantages • A firm owning a valuable asset that creates a competitive advantage domestically can use that advantage to penetrate foreign markets through FDI. • Why FDI and not other methods? 6-36

  37. Internalization Theory • FDI is more likely to occur when transaction costs with a second firm are high. • Transaction costs are costs associated with negotiating, monitoring, and enforcing a contract. 6-37

  38. Dunning’s Eclectic Theory • FDI reflects both international business activity and business activity internal to the firm. • Three conditions for FDI • Ownership advantage • Location advantage • Internalization advantage 6-38

  39. Table 6.5 Factors Affecting the FDI Decision Supply Factors Demand Factors Political Factors 6-39

  40. Map 6.1 Availability of Natural Resources: The Tuna Industry in Indonesia 6-40

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