Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Investigation of Domestic Water Consumption in the Sports and Health Center at the University of Minnesota-Duluth PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Investigation of Domestic Water Consumption in the Sports and Health Center at the University of Minnesota-Duluth

Investigation of Domestic Water Consumption in the Sports and Health Center at the University of Minnesota-Duluth

275 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Investigation of Domestic Water Consumption in the Sports and Health Center at the University of Minnesota-Duluth

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Investigation of Domestic Water Consumption in the Sports and Health Center at the University of Minnesota-Duluth Ken Gilbertston, PhD EnEd 5325 Environmental Issues Investigation Jie Li, B.S. Jessica Schiff, B.A. Sarah Brengman

  2. Overview • Introduction • Problem ID and Definition • Impact Evaluation Criteria • Global Data • Local Data • Impacts • Recommendations • Conclusion

  3. Introduction • Sports and Health Center (SpHC) built in 1953 • 46,000 ft² • 6:30 a.m.-midnight(until 10 p.m. in summer months) • Six-lane swimming pool • Therapy pools • Multiple locker rooms • Full-sized ice rink • Various restroom facilities and drinking fountains • Draws water from City of Duluth water supply

  4. Problem ID and Definition Potential overuse of domestic water consumption in SpHC. Can this amount be reduced? If so, how and how much? If not, why not? Domestic water: Treated water that comes in contact with humans to support everyday life Water consumption: Any and all domestic water used in SpHC (may or may not be returned to the Earth’s water cycle) To waste water: To use, consume, spend, or expend water thoughtlessly, carelessly, or purposefully (The American Heritage Dictionary, 2009)

  5. Background to Problem • 2025: The anticipated year for world-wide water shortages (waterfootprint.org) • Lake Superior = 20% of world’s fresh surface water Figure 1: Distribution of Earth's Water (USGS, 2009).

  6. Impact Evaluation Criteria “Water efficiency is the long-term ethic of saving water resources through the employment of water-saving technologies and activities” (EPA) Determine baseline water requirements needed for SpHC to function Determine if more than this baseline amount of water is being used

  7. Global Data • Glocal: Thinking globally and acting locally • Worldwide water uses: Agricultural, Industrial, Domestic Figure 4: Average per capita domestic consumption from different nations (WBCSD, 2009).

  8. Global Impacts • Case Study: Aral Sea • Environmental Impacts • Economic Impacts • Social Impacts

  9. The Aral Sea An example of a shrinking lake: • Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan • 26,254 mi2 • Now 10% of original size • 2,625 mi2 • Impacts: • Economic-fishing industry, shift in job market • Social-shift in job market, sources/uses of water • Environmental-salinity changes, loss of natural body of water

  10. Local Data and Research Areas researched: Methods: • City of Duluth water system • UMD and SpHC water system • Main water consuming areas in SpHC • Water fixtures and facilities • Costs associated with water consumption • Interviews • Tours • Photography • Internet Research

  11. Minnesota Water Use • Minnesota per capita water usage: 68 gallons • National per capita water usage: 98 gallons Figure 8: Minnesota Water Use by Category, 2005 (Fairbairn, 2010) NOTE: The light pink portion represents Thermoelectricity.

  12. Domestic Water Schematic • Two water sources • 8” and 10” (two pipes coming from same supply) • Not metered individually for SpHC • Back-up not metered by City of Duluth • One waste water pipe: 15”

  13. Water Consumption in SpHC • Awareness of possible areas in SpHC that are or could be major water users (locker rooms, rest rooms, pool, ice rink, etc.) • Water meter data for SpHC (hot, cold, steam) • Water flow for each water fixture (shower heads, faucets, toilets) • Are there ways to improve their efficiency?

  14. Water Consumption in SpHC Table 1: Water Usage in SpHC. (Sawyer, 2010), (Russel- Ausley, 2002) & (Stevens, 2010).

  15. Ice Rink and Cooling Tower Figure 10: SpHC Cooling Tower Water Use by Month (Sawyer, 2010). Figure 11: SpHC Cooling Tower Annual Water Use (Sawyer, 2010).

  16. Pool • 136,000 gallons of water (3 Room 9’s) • Drained and refilled usually twice/year • hot and cold water • Water is filtered and returned to the pool • Some domestic water is added in the process • Surge Tank • Catches water overflow and drained water for recirculation • Filter Tank • Filters water from surge tank before it is pumped back into the pool

  17. Pool Ventilation • New Pool Pack Unit installed March 2010 • Pulls air out of the natatorium • Dehumidifies and adds 10% fresh air • Goal: Regulate temperature and humidity to control evaporation W = (69+0.35 v)(pw-pa)/Y W = evaporation rate, lb/h·ft2 (pounds per hour per square foot) v = air velocity at water surface, ft/min pw = saturation vapor pressure at water temp, in Hg (inches of Mercury) pa = saturation vapor pressure at air dew point, in Hg, also partial pressure of water in pool atmosphere Y = latent heat at pool temperature, Btu/lb (British thermal unit per pound) Figure 12: Rates of Evaporation from Swimming Pools in Active Use

  18. Impacts • Environmental • Effect caused by human activity or natural phenomenon on an environment that is related to or dependent upon water. • Economic • Any increase or decrease in the productive potential of the economy. • Social • The consequences to human population of any public or private actions related to water that alter the ways in which people live, work, play, relate to one another, organize to meet their needs and generally cope as members of society.

  19. Environmental Impacts • Wildlife and plant species • Decrease in water quality • Increase in temperature • Change in Oxygen levels • Increase in concentration of pollutants • Disturbance of contaminated sediments

  20. Economic Impacts • Financial expenditures vs. savings • Water costs start at $2.56/100ft³ up to 4,000ft³ • UMD utility bill: Water = 6% of total cost • $288,000-$390,000 annually • Community/Global Domino Effect: • Shipping Industry • 1” water level drop = 250 tons of coal left on dock when a thousand-footer weighs anchor Figure 14: 2009 UMD Utility Bill Percentages (Sawyer, 2010)

  21. Social Impacts • U.S. is using water more efficiently, but population growth is negating those gains in efficiency • Abundance of fresh lake water in Duluth • Leads to less awareness of responsible water consumption • UMD’s reputation as an environmentally conscious campus

  22. Recommendations • Environmental • Economic • Social • Other NOTE: The research team does not propose that areas of SpHC stop using water. Instead, the research team aims to make recommendations for responsibly using water while ensuring these areas continue to serve their purposes.

  23. Environmental Recommendations • Use as little as possible • Return water that can be reused • Maintain water quality • Use fewer chemicals • Use environmentally-friendly chemicals

  24. Economic Recommendations • Install water on domestic cold water pipe • 6” pipe with an average cost of ~$5,000 • Would complement current meter on domestic hot water • Install low-flow water fixtures in any remaining areas of SpHC

  25. Social Recommendations • Raise awareness of responsible water consumption • “Just One Minute” campaign

  26. Other Recommendations • Pool • Install a 3” water meter to measure domestic water use in only the pool area • Enlarge the surge tank • Would decrease amount of new domestic water added • Ice rink • Improve water quality used for surfacing the ice rink • Leads to a better sheet of ice and less required resurfacing http://www.d.umn.edu/recreation/%28RSOP%20Web%29/Facilities/index.html#ice

  27. Future Research • Water Boilers • Assess energy efficiency • Potential correlation to water consumption • Water Fixtures • Collect number of each type of fixture to assess and compare overall efficiency

  28. Conclusion • Water-consuming areas of SpHC need to continue functioning • Revenue • Unknown total domestic water consumption • Some calculations made • Meters are needed • Water use can be reduced in certain areas • Surge tank for pool • Locker rooms -- low flow fixtures • Raise awareness

  29. Thank You!