TEA – Tecnologia nas Escolas de Arquitetura • The Five Structural Elements • How do Architectural Students Understand Technical Concepts? • Phenomenography as a way to Research the Understanding by Students of Technical Concepts
Five Structural Elements • There are five elements that are present in all structural mechanisms • We are investigating how and what students realize as the main concepts of structural systems • We are producing a movie that shows in a special way how these five elements work in structural systems
Jogo de Memóriasobre os 5 elementos estruturais Este material pedagógico foi desenvolvido com o intuito de facilitar inserção do aluno de arquitetura no mundo das estruturas. Este jogo é um dos elementos que compõe uma serie de procedimentos didáticos que visam facilitar a percepção dos fenômenos físicos e geométricos que envolvem os mecanismo estruturais.
Exemplo de combinação P carga + ou altura + Criacão: Denise Ferraz - musician
Phenomenography as a way to Research the Understanding by Students of Technical Concepts
The meaning of ‘methodology’ ‘In educational research … ‘methodology’ is taken to be a discipline whose function is to examine the underlying rationale for the methods which produce valid knowledge. In this sense, methodology aims to prescribe what are justifiable methods and procedures that ought to be used in the generation and testing of valid knowledge.’ ‘Knowledge is valid only if its production conforms to the methods and procedures prescribed by the methodology you have chosen’ (Professor Wilfred Carr)
Roof slab collapse • ‘There was a misconception in terms of supports definition and a misperception of the five basic structural parameters in this structural system by the designers.’ – César Ballarotti
The object of learning • In this case, the BSP are the object of learning • Students must distinguish critical features of the phenomenon • Objective: see phenomenon in more complex ways – not in terms of the designers’ misconceptions • Cannot discern without experiencing VARIATION • Example: How do we learn what ‘tallness’ is? • Constitute in the classroom the necessary conditions to enable students to experience this variation (discerning critical features of the BSP)
Phenomenography? • Phenomenographic research has as its outcome a set of categories of description that characterise the variation in the way a phenomenon may be experienced. • Focus on the students’ experience of the phenomenon and not the phenomenon itself • Investigating the experience of a phenomena through the eyes of students • Second order vs. first order research
The nature of the p’graphic interview • The researcher and interviewee must establish a shared definition of the phenomenon • The experiences captured by the interview are jointly constituted by the interviewer and the interviewee • The experiences are thematised through a conversation between two partners about a theme of mutual interest • The interview is of a semi-structured nature with only a few key questions predetermined
Useful resources • Marton, F. (1981). Phenomenography - describing conceptions of the world around us. Instructional Science, 10(2), 177-200. • Johansson, B., Marton, F., & Svensson, L. (1985). An approach to describing learning as a change between qualitatively different conceptions. In L. Pines & T. West (Eds.), Cognitive structure and conceptual change (pp. 233-257). New York: Academic Press. • Marton, F. (1986). Phenomenography - A Research Approach to Investigating Different Understandings of Reality. Journal of Thought, 21, 28-49. • Bowden, J. A., & Walsh, E. (1994). Phenomenography. Melbourne: RMIT University Press. • Dall'Alba, G., & Hasselgren, B. (1996). Reflections on phenomenography – Toward a methodology? (Vol. 109): University of Gothenburg. • Marton, F., & Booth, S. (1997). Learning and Awareness. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. • Higher Education Research & Development, 16(2), 1997 • Bowden, J. A., & Green, P. (Eds.). (2005). Doing Developmental Phenomenography. Melbourne: RMIT University Press. • Marton, F., & Tsui, A. (2004). Classroom discourse and the space of learning. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Concluding remarks • Phenomenography as a research approach • The importance of non-dualism in phenomenography • The outcome of a phenomenographic analysis • Bringing structure and meaning to an experience • The structure of awareness • Issues of data collection • The nature of the phenomenographic interview • Characteristics of the sample • Phenomenographic data analysis • From interview to transcript • Fragments of conceptions? • Constituting an outcome space • Useful resources