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Chapter 3: Migration

Chapter 3: Migration

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Chapter 3: Migration

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  1. Chapter 3: Migration The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography

  2. Migration • A type of mobility • Migration is a permanent move to a new location • Migration = relocation diffusion • Emigration – migration from a location • Immigration – migration to a location

  3. Why Do People Migrate? • Reasons for migration • Most people migrate for economic reasons • Push and pull factors • Economic: people move away from places with poor economic opportunities and toward places with better ones • Cultural factors • Forced migration (e.g., slavery, refugees) • Political factors • Environmental factors • E.g., Katrina, or Arizona/Florida

  4. Refugees: Sources and Destinations Figure 3-2

  5. Why Do People Migrate? • Reasons for migration • Push and pull factors • Intervening obstacles • Historically, intervening obstacles = environmental • Transportation technology = limited environmental intervening obstacles

  6. Why Do People Migrate? • Distance of migration • Internal migration • Two types: • Interregional migration = movement from one region to another • Intraregional migration = movement within a region

  7. Why Do People Migrate? • Distance of migration • International migration • Two types: • Voluntary • Forced • Migration transition • International migration is most common in countries that are in stage 2 of the demographic transition

  8. Global Migration Patterns Figure 3-5

  9. Why Do People Migrate? • Characteristics of migrants • Most long-distance migrants are • Male • Adults • Individuals • Families with children = less common

  10. Why Do People Migrate? • Characteristics of migrants • Gender • Traditionally, males outnumbered females • In the United States today, 55 percent of immigrants = female • Family status • In the United States today, about 40 percent of immigrants = young adults, aged 25–39

  11. Where Are Migrants Distributed? • Global migration patterns • Net out-migration: Asia, Africa, and Latin America • Net in-migration: North America, Europe, and Oceania • The United States has the largest foreign-born population

  12. Quick Review • What is the difference between emigration and immigration? • What the three major types of push/pull factors? • Of those three, which one is the reason most people migrate? • Name the two types of migration. • What are the two types (or ways) people internationally migrate? Can you think of any current examples? • Most long-term migrants were ….(characteristics)? Why? • How has that changed since the 1990’s? Why?

  13. Net Migration by Country Figure 3-7

  14. Where Are Migrants Distributed – Key Issue #2 • U.S. migration patterns • Three main eras of migration • Colonial migration from England and Africa • Nineteenth-century immigration from Europe • Recent immigration from LDCs

  15. Migration to the United States Figure 3-8

  16. Impact of immigration on the United States • Legacy of European migration • Europe’s demographic transition • Stage 2 growth pushed Europeans out • 65 million Europeans emigrate • Diffusion of European culture

  17. Impact of immigration on the United States • Undocumented immigrant – immigrants without proper documentation • Unauthorized immigration • 2008 = estimated 11.9 million unauthorized/ undocumented immigrants • About 5.4 percent of the U.S. civilian labor force • Around 59 percent are undocumented immigrants from Mexico

  18. Impact of immigration on the United States • Destinations • California = one-fifth of all immigrants and one-fourth of undocumented immigrants • New York = one-sixth of all immigrants • Chain migration – migration of people to a specific location, due to family, friends, or members of the same nationality.

  19. Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles? – Key Issue #3 • Quota - • Immigration policies of host countries • U.S. quota laws • The Quota Act (1921) • The National Origins Act (1924) • Temporary migration for work • Guest workers – citizens of poor countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle East • Time-contract workers

  20. Brain Drain – large-scale emigration by talented people. Some say the U.S. and Europe contribute to this issue • Distinguishing economic migrants from refugees • Emigrants from Cuba • Emigrants from Haiti • Emigrants from Vietnam

  21. Cultural problems faced while living in host countries • U.S. attitudes towards immigrants • Attitudes toward guest workers

  22. Review Questions over Key Issue #2 and #3 • Where are most people emigrating from? • Where are most people immigrating to? • Which country has the largest foreign-born population? Why do you think that is?

  23. Why Do People Migrate Within a Country? – Key Issue #4 • Migration between regions of a country • U.S. settlement patterns • Colonial settlement • Early settlement in the interior (early 1800s) • California • Gold Rush in the 1840s • Great Plains settlement • Recent growth of the South

  24. Changing Center of the U.S. Population Figure 3-16

  25. U.S. Interregional Migration Figure 3-17

  26. Why Do People Migrate Within a Country? • Migration between regions of other countries • Russia • Komsomol • Government incentives in Brazil and Indonesia • Economic migration within European countries • Restricted migration in India

  27. Migration in Europe Figure 3-20

  28. Why Do People Migrate Within a Country? • Intraregional migration in the United States • Migration from rural to urban areas • Primary reason = economic migration • Migration from urban to suburban areas • Primary reason = suburban lifestyle • Migration from urban to rural areas • Counterurbanization

  29. Intraregional Migration in the United States Figure 3-21

  30. The End. Up next: Folk and Popular Culture