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Chapter 6 Negotiating access and research ethics

Chapter 6 Negotiating access and research ethics

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Chapter 6 Negotiating access and research ethics

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  1. Chapter 6Negotiating access and research ethics

  2. Gaining access to data (1) Physical access – key issues • Organisations may not wish to allocate resources • Requests for access may not be of sufficient interest • Failure to reach those who can give permission • Concerns about sensitivity and confidentiality • Perceptions about the researcher’s credibility • Doubts about the researcher’s competence

  3. Gaining access to data (2) Points to consider • Access as an iterative process • Obtaining consent from managers and participants • Obtaining cognitive access • The nature and extent of the required access • Obtaining sufficient scope to answer the research question

  4. Gaining access to data (3) Virtual access - four types of online community • Bulletin boards for particular products or services • Independent web pages • Themed email lists • Multiuser chat rooms Adapted from Kozinets (2002)

  5. Gaining access to data (4) Checklist Box 6.8 Complete the Checklist in Box 6.8 to help you gain access Saunders et al. (2009)

  6. Strategies to gain access (1) Areas for consideration • Ensuring familiarity and understanding • Allowing sufficient time • Using existing contacts and developing new ones • Giving a clear account of purpose

  7. Strategies to gain access (2) Areas for consideration • Overcoming organisational concerns • Identifying possible organisational benefits • Appropriate forms of communication • Incremental access • Establishing researcher credibility

  8. Research Ethics (1) Definition ‘The appropriateness of your behaviour in relation to the rights of those who become the subject of or are affected by your work’ Adapted from Saunders et al. (2009)

  9. Research Ethics (2) Ethical issues at different stages of research Source: Saunders et al. (2009) Figure 6.1 Ethical issues at different stages of research (part 1)

  10. Research Ethics (3) Ethical issues at different stages of research Source: Saunders et al. (2009) Figure 6.1 Ethical issues at different stages of research (part 2)

  11. Research Ethics (4) Two philosophical standpoints of business and management research • Deontological • Teleological

  12. Research Ethics (5) Research conduct is affected by • Code of ethics • Research ethics committees • General ethical issues • Netiquette

  13. Research Ethics (6) Issues during design and gaining access • Obtaining consent - implied and informed • Using participant information sheets • Consent for observation and online observation

  14. Research Ethics (7) The nature of participant consent Source: Saunders et al. (2009) Figure 6.2 The nature of participant consent

  15. Research Ethics (8) Issues during data collection • General issues applying to techniques • Awareness of participant’s rights • Keeping to the project aims • Safety of the researcher

  16. Research Ethics (9) Issues during data collection • Maintaining objectivity, confidentiality and anonymity • Appropriate interview behaviour • Use of observation techniques • Undertaking a covert study

  17. Data processing and storage Personal data must be • Processed fairly and lawfully • Obtained for specified purposes • Adequate and relevant • Accurate, updated and kept securely Adapted from Saunders et al. (2009)

  18. Data analysis and reporting Related issues • Sensitive personal data • Confidentiality and anonymity • Protection of research participants • Ethical use of data analysis and conclusions

  19. Dealing with ethical issues Checklist Box 6.18 Complete the Checklist in Box 6.18 to help you anticipate and deal with ethical issues Saunders et al. (2009)

  20. Summary: Chapter 6 • Access and ethics are critical aspects of research • Access may be physical, cognitive or continuing • Feasibility is an important determinant • Potential ethical issues should be recognised

  21. Summary: Chapter 6 • Ethical concerns can occur throughout the research • Both qualitative and quantitative research have associated ethical issues • Use of the Internet and email for data generation raises specific ethical issues • Data protection legislation requires researchers to comply with legal requirements