DNA Extraction from Strawberries Pre-Lab Extraction means to take something out
DNA is present in the cells of all living organisms. DNA extraction is a process used in many laboratories procedures. DNA can be extracted from human cells and can be used in forensic science and genetic testing. The scientist must be able to separate DNA from the unwanted substances of the cell gently enough so that the DNA does not denature (break up). DNA Extraction
Each human cell contains about 9 feet of DNA Not all types of cells contain the same amount of DNA Cells from other organisms can contain more or less DNA than human cells DNA Facts
In eukaryotic cells, DNA is found in the nucleusof the cell. Human cells are diploid (2n), meaning they have 2 sets of chromosomes Many plants are polyploid (contain several sets of chromosomes) Strawberries are octaploid (8n) meaning they have 8 sets of chromosomes
DNA is enclosed in a nuclear and a cell membrane made of phospholipids DNA is also coiled around proteins called histones. Both the phospholipid layer and the proteins must be broken down and removed in order to extract the DNA
Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nuclear membrane Proteins To Extract DNA, You Must Remove …
You must break down the cells in the strawberry. To do this, you will Place the strawberry in a zip lock bag and remove the air Smash the berry with your hand to begin the process To begin the extraction…
Using a small amount of soapor detergent. You will also add a salt to the soapy solution, which will punch holes in the membrane allowing the soap to dissolve the membrane more easily. Membranes are made of phospholipids which, like oils and fats, won’t dissolve in water. Soap helps to dissolve the phospholipid layer and release the contents of the cell After the cells are broken apart, you must break down the cell membrane. You will do this by…
DNA is tightly coiled around the histones (proteins). These histones must be denatured or unfolded to release the DNA. Enzymes, like the ones found in meat tenderizer, can be used to denature or proteins and uncoil the DNA. After the membrane is dissolved, the DNA must be uncoiled from the proteins.
To separate the DNA from the rest of the cell you will use a filter and a funnel. This process will remove the larger cell parts by filtering the solid from the liquid. Separating the DNA from the rest of the cell
To see the DNA, it must be separated from the remaining liquid you filtered DNA dissolves in water, but NOT in alcohol Adding COLD ALCOHOL will cause DNA to precipitate (separate out) from the liquid filtrate After filtering, the DNA is left in the liquid solution BUT you can’t see it yet.
Once the alcohol is added, the DNA will appear as a white precipitate above the pink solution. HOLD THE TUBE by the TOP, not the bottom so the DNA strands will stay cold and won’t break apart from the heat of your hands! After the DNA is spooled, what will it look like? DNA precipitate
DNA is sticky and will adhere to other surfaces A glass stirring rod or wooden stick can be used to spool (remove) the DNA by using a turning motion Spooling the DNA Spooled DNA