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Scheduling Algorithmic Research

Scheduling Algorithmic Research

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Scheduling Algorithmic Research

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  1. Scheduling Algorithmic Research Rami Abielmona 94.571 (ELG 6171) Monday March 27, 2000 Prof. T. W. Pearce

  2. Scheduling Algorithms Introduction • Problem definition: • “One CPU with a number of processes. Only one process can use the CPU at a time and each process is specialized in one, and one task. What’s the best way to organize the processes (schedule them) ?” [1] • “How will the CPU time be divided among the processes and threads competing to use it ?” [2]

  3. Scheduling AlgorithmsEmbedded OS Architecture • Kernel: • The executor • Executive: • The manager • Application Programs: • The programmer tasks • Real World Interfacing: • S/W handling the H/W

  4. Scheduling AlgorithmsBasic Assumptions • A pool of runnable processes are contending for one CPU; • The processes are independent and compete for resources; • The job of the scheduler is to distribute the scarce resource of the CPU to the different processes “fairly” and in an optimal way; • The job of the dispatcher is to provide the mechanism for running the processes; • The OS is a multitasking, but not a multiprocessor, one; • Only CPU scheduling is considered (the lowest level of scheduling).

  5. Scheduling AlgorithmsEvaluation Characteristics

  6. Resources: Preemptible: Take resource away, use it for something else, then give it back. (e.g. processor or I/O channel) Non-preemptible: Once give, it can’t be reused until process gives it back. (e.g. file space or terminal) Processes: IO bound: Perform lots of IO operations. IO burst ---- short CPU burst to process IO --- IO burst CPU bound: Perform lots of computation and do little IO CPU burst ----------- Small IO burst ----------- CPU burst Scheduling AlgorithmsProcesses and Resources

  7. Scheduling AlgorithmsProcess State Transitions • The states of a process, at any given time, is comprised of the following minimal set: • Running: • The CPU is currently executing the code belonging to the process. • Ready: • The process could be running, but another process has the CPU. • Waiting: • Before the process can run, some external event must occur.

  8. Scheduling AlgorithmsTypes of Schedulers • Long-term scheduler: • admits new processes to the system; • required because each process needs a portion of the available memory for its code and data. • Medium-term scheduler: • is not found in all systems; • required to control the temporary removal from memory of a process when the latter is extractable. • Short-term scheduler: • determines the assignment of the CPU to ready processes; • required because of IO requests and completions.

  9. Scheduling AlgorithmsThe Contestants (1) • First-Come First-Serve (FCFS) • One ready queue; • OS runs the process at head of the queue; • New processes come in at the end of the queue; • Running process does not give up the CPU until it terminates or it performs IO. • Round Robin • Process runs for one time slice, then moved to back of the queue; • Each process gets equal share of the CPU.

  10. Scheduling AlgorithmsThe Contestants (2) • Shortest Time to Completion (STCF) • Process with shortest computation time left is picked; • Varianted by preemption; • Requires knowledge of the future. • Exponential Queue (Multi-level Feedback) • Gives newly runnable processes a high priority and a very short time slice; • If process uses up the time slice without blocking then decrease priority by one and double time slice for next time; • Solves both efficiency and response time problems.

  11. Scheduling AlgorithmsThe Contestants (3) - Priorities • Priority Systems • The highest priority ready process is selected • In case of a tie, FCFS can be used • Priorities could be assigned: • Externally (e.g. by a system manager) • Internally (e.g. by some algorithm) • Combination of external and internal • Preemptive schemes: • Once a process starts executing, allow it to continue until it voluntarily yields the CPU • Non-preemptive schemes: • A running process may be forced to yield the CPU by an external event rather than by its own action

  12. Scheduling AlgorithmsFirst-Come First-Serve • Non-preemptive FCFS (no priority scheme) • Simplest implementation of scheduling algorithms • Used on timeshared systems (with timer interruption) • Non-preemptive FCFS (with priority scheme) • Next highest priority process is picked when CPU is yielded • Once process grabs CPU, former keeps latter until completion • Rarely used in real-time systems • Preemptive FCFS (with priority scheme) • Most popular FCFS algorithm

  13. Scheduling AlgorithmsRound Robin • Used mostly on timeshared systems • Allows multiple users slices of the CPU on a “round robin” basis • Majority of users have the same priority • Not a popular scheme with dynamic priority systems

  14. Scheduling AlgorithmsShortest Time to Completion • Priorities are assigned in inverse order of time needed for completion of the entire job • Minimizes average turnaround time • Exponential averaging is used to estimate the process’ burst duration • A job exceeding the resource estimation is aborted • A job exceeding the time estimation is preempted • Store estimated value in PCB for the current burst, and compare with actual value

  15. Scheduling AlgorithmsExponential Queues • Popular in interactive systems • A single queue is maintained for each priority level • A new process is added at the end of the highest priority queue • It is alloted a single time quantum when it reaches the front • If it yields the CPU within the time quantum, it is moved to the rear • If not, it is placed at the rear of the next queue down • Dispatcher selects the head of the highest priority queue • A job that “succeeds” moves up • A job that “fails” moves down

  16. Scheduling AlgorithmsImplementation - Data Structures • A queue of processes is implemented by linking PCB’s together using a linked list (with first and last node pointers) • Since this project’s queues are known to be short, priority is implemented by using priority queues, and PriorityInsert() function calls • Different queues are used to represent different states of processes (Ready, Suspended) • Self-release of CPU • Internal signal • Process completion • Forced-release of CPU • Time slot expired • External signal Process ID Status Priority Next Process

  17. Scheduling AlgorithmsImplementation - Progress • Used an OO template in order to easily and efficiently implement any necessary queue • Used structurally defined functions to “simulate” the scheduler and dispatcher • fill_poolQ(), get_tasks(src,dest), sort(queue) • Implemented FCFS, RR and STCF • RR was implemented to fairly compare schemes • Theoretical work still needs to be done • comparison and evaluation

  18. The underlying interrupt system basically readies the task for a switch, but does not perform the switch Process switches are directly handled by the scheduler This causes a delay from the time of readiness to the time of the switch, which is not tolerated for, let’s say, system exceptions The solution is to completely by-pass the scheduler (OS) and go directly to an ISR. [1] Each process is allocated its own private stack and workspace This is done to avoid different processes overwriting each other’s data and code This is based on a strict process model, where all heavyweight processes do not share resources Code that can be shared safely is called ‘re-entrant’ code [1] Scheduling AlgorithmsImplementation - Issues

  19. Scheduling AlgorithmsImplementation - Analysis • Direct analysis • Pick a task set and observe results • Apply queueing theory to obtain results • Multi-level feedback queue scheme • Simulations of scheme implementations • FCFS, RR, STCF • Innovations and projections • “Lottery” scheduling and “own” algorithm

  20. Scheduling AlgorithmsReferences 1)Cooling, J.E. Software Design for Real-Time Systems. Chapman & Hall, London, UK: 1995. 2) Stallings, William. Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998. 3) - viewed on 03/24/2000 4) Savitzky, Stephen. Real-Time Microprocessor Systems. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, N.Y.: 1985. 5) Undergraduate Operating System Course Notes (Ottawa University, 1998)