SPEED-BASED TRAINING for Middle Distance & Distance Runners by Lyle Knudson, Ed.D.
WHAT IS SPEED-BASED TRAINING? More accurately titled – “Speed, Speed Endurance, & Specific Endurance Based Training” Training specific to the demands of the event(s)
VS.AEROBIC-ENDURANCE BASED TRAINING • As has been applied by most U.S. distance coaches over the past 35+ years. • Commonly referred to as the “Pyramid Model” • Develop an Aerobic-Endurance “base” via long-slow running, then gradually transition to include training more specific to the event
PROBLEMS WITHAerobic-Endurance Based Training • Through 60’s & early 70’s, when interval training (more like Speed-Based Training) was the primary training method, the U.S. dominated middle distance and distance running in the world • Since then, Aerobic-Endurance Based Training has become the dominant approach to U.S. distance training, U.S. middle distance and distance performances, at all levels, have declined over this period. U.S. developed athletes are no longer even a factor in world-class distance running. • There is no valid scientific justification for the Aerobic-Endurance Based Training approach.
SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING-ADAPTATION • Your body adapts to the stresses applied. • Your body adapts to the SPECIFIC stresses applied. • Your body will only adapt to unaccustomed stimuli. • Adaptation occurs during recovery. • Your body also adapts to lack of stress. You regress • Your body will positively adapt to stress, unless the stresses are too great.
YOUR BODY ADAPTS TO THE STRESSES APPLIED • You train (i.e., apply stress). Then your body adapts to be able to perform at higher levels.
YOUR BODY ADAPTS TO THE SPECIFIC STRESSES APPLIED. For Example: • If you properly train “Speed”, you body will adapt to run faster. • If you properly train “Speed Endurance”, your body will adapt to run fast longer. • If you properly train “Specific Endurance”, your body will adapt to run a specific distance faster. • If you train long and slow, your body will adapt to run longer and slower.
YOUR BODY WILL ONLY ADAPT TO UNACCUSTOMED STIMULI. For example: • To improve “speed”, you must train faster (greater stride length & frequency) than your current maximum speed. • To run your objective race distance faster, you must train at paces faster than your current PR in that event. • If you only train at paces at or slower than what you’ve already accomplished in your event, your body will not adapt to run faster.
ADAPTATION OCCURS DURING RECOVERY. • Full recovery-adaptation from a hard training bout requires 48-72 hours of very limited activity. • High volumes of long-slow running inhibits recovery-adaptation.
YOUR BODY ALSO ADAPTS TO LACK OF STRESS. YOU REGRESS. • If you don’t train a specific event component (e.g., speed, speed endurance, specific endurance) on a regular basis, you begin to loose it. • Negative adaptation of a component generally begins to occur after a 48-72 hour period of non-training of that component.
YOUR BODY WILL POSITIVELY ADAPT TO STRESS, UNLESS THE STRESSES ARE TOO GREAT. • If the stresses are too great, you will not improve, will regress, and/or will become injured or ill. • Short-term stresses (e.g., a hard workout) are seldom the cause of injury or illness. • Cumulative stress (due to lack of recovery-adaptation between workouts) is generally the cause of lack of improvement, regression of performances, and injuries & illnesses.
CONCLUSIONSpeed, Speed-Endurance, & Specific- Endurance Based TrainingNOTAerobic-Endurance Based Training
REVIEW Scientific Principles as they relate to – SPEED-BASED TRAINING vs. AEROBIC-ENDURANCE BASED TRAINING (go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING, Introduction page)
TO ADHERE TO THE SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING-ADAPTATION • Use Speed, Speed-Endurance, & Specific Endurance based training. • Follow a COMPREHENSIVE and SYSTEMATIC program.
COMPREHENSIVE and SYSTEMATIC TRAINING • COMPREHENSIVE TRAINING - Identifying and properly training all affective components of performance in the event(s). • SYSTEMATIC TRAINING - For adequate stress and recovery (and therefore maximum positive adaptation) and to avoid negative adaptation (due to lack of stress or over-stress), you must train consistently according to “training cycles”. Training Cycles are time periods of systematically varying physiological and psycho-social stress loads. (will discuss Systematic Training later when tying the total program together)
COMPREHENSIVE TRAINING PHYSICAL COMPONENTS OF PERFORMANCE WHICH APPLY TO THE MIDDLE DISTANCE AND DISTANCE EVENTS: • Strength - ability to apply force • Quickness - frequency of repeating a specific movement pattern • Power = Strength X Quickness = the ability to apply maximum force over a minimum period of time • Speed = Power = Stride Length (result of Strength & Technique) X Stride Frequency (result of Quickness & Technique) • Endurance - ability to sustain a movement pattern (movement & intensity) over an interval of time (duration). Four “endurances”, defined by movement duration & intensity: • Aerobic Endurance - long & slow • Speed (Anaerobic) Endurance - short & fast • Anaerobic Threshold - moderate duration & speed • Specific Endurance - (% Anaerobic – Aerobic specific to event; at objective event distance and pace
NOTE • The majority of components are Speed, Speed-Endurance, and Specific Endurance related. • Aerobic Endurance and Anaerobic Threshold are also important components, and will be included in the total training program discussed later, but are not the dominating factors as practiced in most U.S. distance programs.
SPEED - Justification WHY IS SPEED DEVELOPMENT IMPORTANT TO DISTANCE RUNNERS? • The common response is “for the finishing kick”. But in a race of equal runners who know how to maximize performance (i.e., run equal & optimum pace throughout), if you hold back and save/wait for the kick, you’ll be so far behind that a great kick is not going to make up the difference. • The primary benefit of Speed is to be able to run more efficiently (i.e., at a faster pace with the same effort) throughout the race. For example, if you’re best 100m time is 15 seconds, you’ll certainly not be able to maintain that pace for a 2:00 800m. But if you can run a 12.0 100m, with proper Specific Endurance Training, you’ll be able to maintain a 15.0 pace throughout to achieve a 2:00.
SHOULD YOU DEVELOP SPEED OR ENDURANCE FIRST? • Certainly don’t develop Aerobic-Endurance first, because long-slow running will cause loss of Speed. • Some sprint coaches advocate an Inverted Pyramid Model, developing Speed first and then adding Endurance training to extend the Speed over increasingly greater distances. • Based on the Scientific Principles, you can and should develop Speed and Endurance simultaneously.
HOW TO IMPROVE SPEED • Speed (velocity) = Stride Length X Stride Frequency • So to improve Speed, increase Stride Length and Stride Frequency • To increase Stride Length, improve Sprint Technique (body positions & movement patterns) and Strength • To increase Stride Frequency, improve Sprint Technique and Quickness • To increase both Stride Length and Stride Frequency simultaneously, reduce ground contact by improving Sprint Technique and Power
SPRINT TECHNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS • Minimize ground contact • Run tall • Up & down (vs. forward & back) movements of arms and legs relative to body alignment • Emphasize front-side (vs. back-side) mechanics • Maintain arms at 90 degrees • Dorsiflex feet • Pawing motion of legs (vs. push in back & brake in front)
ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING SPRINT TECHNIQUE, STRIDE LENGTH, AND STRIDE FREQUENCY I. DYNAMIC LEAD-UPS: • Exercises which systematically progress from little to optimum ranges of motion, and from slow to maximum speed • As part of Warm-Up on formal training days • Exercises; 3 X 15-30m each of: • Low Knees • Sprint Walks • Sprint Skips • High Knees • Build-Ups • Accelerations • Flyings • Start-Throughs
II. SPECIFIC SPEED DEVELOPMENT EXERCISES (conducted at high intensities over short durations) (benefits)
MEASURING/CALCULATING COMPONENTS OF SPEED DEVELOPMENT, #1 • Components - Time (per distance), Speed/Velocity, Stride Length, Stride Frequency, Ground Contact (vs. Air Times) • Purpose - Determine where you are now, your development needs, and the progress your making in Speed development • Required - 30m Fly time, video/DVD recording of 30m Fly, video/DVD player or computer software capable of displaying/counting frame by frame
MEASURING/CALCULATING COMPONENTS OF SPEED DEVELOPMENT, #2 • ALGORITHMS FOR COMPUTING THE COMPONENTS: • Velocity = Distance/Time = 30m / 30m Fly Time • Time for 5 strides = 1/30 X Number of Frames for 5 strides (assuming frame frequency of 30 frames per second) • Stride Frequency = 5 / Time For 5 Strides • Stride Length = Velocity / Stride Frequency • INTERPRETATION; OPTIMUMS: • Stride length = 2.35 – 2.50 X trochanter length • Stride Frequency = 4.5 – 5.0 strides per second • Frames Per Stride < 7 • Ground time < 3 frames
REVIEW SPEED DEVELOPMENT (go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING, Speed Development page)
ENDURANCE • Definition • Classifications • Physiology Of
DEFINITION OFENDURANCE • Endurance - the ability to sustain a specific movement pattern (e.g., running at an objective pace) over a given interval of time (duration)
CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENDURANCE FOUR DIFFERENT INTERDEPENDENT “ENDURANCES”, DEFINED BY MOVEMENT INTENSITY AND DURATION; DETERMINED BY AEROBIC AND/OR ANAEROBIC ENERGY UTILIZATION. • Aerobic Endurance - ability to sustain a low intensity movement pattern over a long period of time • Anaerobic Endurance (also called Speed Endurance) - ability to sustain a very high movement pattern over a short interval of time • Anaerobic Threshold - stress level at which anaerobic stores begin to be utilized to sustain the intensity of the movement pattern • Specific Endurance - ability to sustain a desired intensity of movement pattern over an objective duration; requires both aerobic and anaerobic energy
PHYSIOLOGY OF ENDURANCE • Protein Synthesis • Generation Of Energy
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS THE PRIMARY ADAPTATION MECHANISM IN THE BODY IS THE REGENERATION AND INCREASE OF: • Structural Protein - muscle, connective tissue, organs, blood cells, mitochondria, … • Enzymatic Protein - enzymes, hormones; which motivate and control cellular function MUST GET THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS INTO THE CELL, AND STIMULATE THE SYNTHESIS OF STRUCTURAL & ENZYMATIC PROTEIN; HOW? • Nutrition - adequate protein & complex carbohydrates (vegetables, fruits, grains); limited sugars, starches, and fats • Hard Training, specific to event; avoid excessive long-slow distance (reduces growth hormone levels) • Adequate recovery-adaptation between hard training bouts; generally 48-72 hours of easy activity
GENERATION OF ENERGY (ATP)(Aerobic, Anaerobic, Anaerobic Threshold, % Anaerobic-Aerobic) AEROBIC
GENERATION OF ENERGY (ATP)(Aerobic, Anaerobic, Anaerobic Threshold, % Anaerobic-Aerobic) ANAEROBIC
GENERATION OF ENERGY(Aerobic, Anaerobic, Anaerobic Threshold, % Anaerobic-Aerobic) % ANAEROBIC – AEROBIC Brief Introduction; elaboration when discussing Specific Endurance
% ANAEROBIC – AEROBIC APPROXIMATE PERCENTAGES OF CONTRIBUTION OF ANAEROBIC VS. AEROBIC FOR MAXIMUM EFFORT PERFORMANCES IN GIVEN EVENTS. DistanceAnaerobic %Aerobic % 25m 100% 0% 50m 99% 1% 100m 98% 2% 200m 95% 5% 400m 90% 10% 800m 70% 30% 1500m/1600m 50% 50% 3000m/3200m 30% 70% 3000mSt/5000m 20% 80% 10k 10% 90% 20k 5% 95% Marathon (42k) 0% 100% Brief Introduction; elaboration when discussing Specific Endurance
SPEED (ANAEROBIC) ENDURANCE • Definition of Speed Endurance - ability to run at maximum speed longer (60m > 150m); provides increased capacity of anaerobic stores contributing to performance in events requiring both aerobic and anaerobic energy • Physiological Adaptations to Speed Endurance Training - increase of structural & enzymatic protein; increase in anaerobic stores (neural impulse, stored ATP, stored CP, buffering/tolerance/diffusion of lactic acid • Speed Endurance Duration, Energy Sources, Training, & Recovery: Recovery (between reps; DurationEnergy SourcesTraining (reps)generally 1 min. per 10m) 0-.2 sec. neural impulse + ATP 1 change in motion 5-15 seconds specific to running 0–5 sec. neural impulse + ATP + CP 10m – 50m 1 – 5 minutes 0–15 sec. neural impulse + ATP + CP + 60m – 150m 6 – 15 minutes buffering of lactic acid
SPEED (ANAEROBIC) ENDURANCE WHERE IN THE TRAINING PROGRAM? • Sprinters (100-400) – in Warm-Up (dynamic lead-ups) and Specific Endurance Workout (day training events = 25, 50, 100, & 200) • Middle Distance (800-1500) – in Warm-Up (dynamic lead-ups) and Specific Endurance Workout (day training events = 200, 400) • Distance (3000-marathon) – in Warm-Up (dynamic lead-ups)
SPEED (ANAEROBIC) ENDURANCE EXAMPLES OF SPEED ENDURANCE WORKOUTS; FOR SPECIFIC DAY TRAINING EVENTS Day Training EventIn Addition to Dynamic Lead-Ups & Speed Development Exercises 25m 8 X 1 arms action; start at 5X seconds 8 X knee up-downs, each leg; start at 5X seconds 8 X vertical jumps from ½ squat position; start at 15X seconds 4 X start-through 15m; start at 2X minutes 4 X flying 15m; start at 2X minutes 50m 1 X flying 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5; 3.5, 3, 2.5, 2, 1.5, 1 min. bet. 100m 1 X start-through 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70; 1,2,3,4,5,6 min. bet. 200m 3 X 30m build-ups, on curve; 3 minutes between 3 X 30m accelerations, on straight; 3 minutes between 3 X 30m start-throughs, on curve; 3 minutes between 3 X 30m flyings, on straight; 3 minutes between 400m 1 X flying 30, 60, 90, 120, 150; 3, 6, 9, 12 minutes between
REVIEW SPEED ENDURANCE TRAINING (go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING, Speed Endurance Development page)
SPECIFIC ENDURANCE • DEFINITION - Specific Endurance is the ability to run at maximum pace throughout a specific event that requires both aerobic and anaerobic energy (i.e., all events 50m through marathon) • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC ENERGY AT DURATIONS & INTENSITIES REQUIRING BOTH. (Elaborate over previous introduction)
SPECIFIC ENDURANCE APPROXIMATE PERCENTAGES OF CONTRIBUTION OF ANAEROBIC VS. AEROBIC FOR MAXIMUM EFFORT IN GIVEN EVENTS: DistanceAnaerobic %Aerobic % 25m 100% 0% 50m 99% 1% 100m 98% 2% 200m 95% 5% 400m 90% 10% 800m 70% 30% 1500m/1600m 50% 50% 3000m/3200m 30% 70% 3000mSt/5000m 20% 80% 10k 10% 90% 20k 5% 95% Marathon (42k) 0% 100%
TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE • The most “specific” endurance training is at the desired intensity (i.e., pace) of the objective event (TD – Training Distance). • However, for maximum development, you should systematically train “up to” and “down to” the intensity of the objective event. • OOD (Over-Over Distance) and OD (Over Distance) represents lower intensity but greater duration training. • UUD (Under-Under distance) and UD (Under Distance) represents higher intensity but lower duration training. • The recommended sequence of formal training (MWF, MWSa, or TThSa) over a two week cycle is OOD, UUD, OD, UD, TD, and miscellaneous (i.e., competition, simulated competition, or which of OOD, OD, TD, UD, or UUD is most needed. See next slide for example.
SPECIFIC ENDURANCE TRAINING, EXAMPLE • If the selected Training Distance is 800m, the training objective paces would be sequentially at 3000/3200, 200, 1500/1600, 400, and 800 respectively over a two-week cycle. • Assuming the formal training days are TThSa, the training objectives and paces would be: Days I Objective Day Training Event Pace • Sunday • Monday • Tuesday OOD 3000m/3200m • Wednesday • Thursday UUD 200m • Friday • Saturday OD 1500m/1600m • Sunday • Monday • Tuesday UD 400m • Wednesday • Thursday TD 800m • Friday • 14.Saturday (Miscellaneous)
TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE SELECTING THE OBJECTIVE TRAINING DISTANCE • For a given athlete, the Objective Training Distance can vary year to year, from season to season, or within a season. • If the Training Distance is to vary, the athletes should train “down to up” in distance; i.e., develop the speed, speed endurance and specific endurance to run at the objective pace at the shorter distance, then develop the specific endurance to extend that pace to the longer distance. • If an athlete competes in more than one event (e.g., 800 & 1500), the Training Distance should be the shorter distance.
TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE OBJECTIVE PACE OF WORKOUTS • So that the body will know specifically what it’s supposed to adapt to, the entire workout (i.e., each rep) should be run only at the objective Day Training Event Pace. • Set recoveries commensurate with the number and distance/duration of reps so that the runners will naturally run at the objective Day Training Event pace when trying to run the total workout as fast as possible. • The objective workout pace should be faster (approximately 3% faster velocity) than the current PR in the Training Event for that day.
TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE WORKOUT VOLUMES • The total distance/duration, at the objective Training Event pace, for the workout should be: Training DistanceMultipleTotal Distance 25m 8X 200m 50m 6X 300m 100m 5X 500m 200m 4X 800m 400m 3X 1200m 800m 2.5X 2000m 1500m/1600m 2.25X 3600m 3000m/3200m 2X 6000m 3000mSt/5000m 1.75X 9000m 10k 1.5X 15k 15k 1.5X 22.5k 20k 1.5X 30k • Approaching major competitions (e.g., State HS Meet, National Championships), to assure full recovery/adaptation from any accumulated stresses (physical and/or psycho-social), volumes should be reduced to approximately 75% and 50% the last two weeks prior.
TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE TRAINING TYPES • To allow for a variety of training, to accommodate/train other aspects (e.g., psycho-social stresses, race strategies), and yet meet the aforementioned requirements and get the same training effects, workouts should be broken down by Training Types. Example workouts for different Training Types, for a 1500/1600 as the Training Event for the day (therefore, approximately 3600m total distance), are: SAMPLE WORKOUTS BASED ON DISTANCES Training TypeSample Workout Short Intervals 36 X 100m, 1 minute recovery between reps Medium Intervals 18 X 200m, 2 minutes recovery between reps Long Intervals 9 X 400m, 3 minutes recovery between reps Step-Ups 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800; 4 minutes recovery Step-Downs 800, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, 100; 4 minutes recovery Step Up-Downs 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, 100; 4 min. bet. Step Down-Ups 500, 400, 300, 200, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500; 3 minutes between Sets-Reps 3 X (4 X 300); 2 minutes between reps, 4 minutes between sets SAMPLE WORKOUTS BASED ON TIME Training TypeSample Workout Short Intervals 36 X :15, start on 1X minutes Medium Intervals 18 X :30, start on 2X minutes Long Intervals 9 X 1:00, start on 4X minutes Step-Ups :15, :30, :45, 1:00, 1:15, 1:30, 1:45, 2:00; 4 minutes between Step-Downs 2:00, 1:45, 1:30, 1:15, 1:00, :45, :30, :15; 4 minutes between Step Up-Downs :15, :30, :45, 1:00, 1:15, 1:30, 1:15, 1:00, :45, :30, :15; 4 min. bet. Step Down-Ups 1:15, 1:00, :45, :30, :15, :30, :45, 1:00, 1:15; 3 minutes between Sets-Reps 3 X (4 X :45); 2 minutes between reps, 4 minutes between sets
REVIEW TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE (go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING and Specific Endurance Training page)
ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAINING DEFINITION • Anaerobic Threshold (AT) training is continuous running at approximately anaerobic threshold pace, often referred to as “quality distance” or “tempo” running. • An individual’s AT pace is most easily estimated by running a known long distance (e.g., 5k for 800/1500 runner, 10k for a 3000 runner, 15k for a 5000 runner, 20k for a marathoner) at near maximum effort, and then computing the pace. • Or AT pace is between 140-160 heart rate for highly trained runners, 150-170 for younger and less developed individuals.
ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAINING IMPORTANCE OF ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAINING • While not as important to development as Speed, Speed Endurance, and Specific Endurance, improving the Anaerobic Threshold does allow the athlete to sustain a faster pace without using Anaerobic stores, particularly relevant in the longer distance races.