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The Post-Cold War World: the “end of history?” The Clash of Civilisations World Politics Today

The Post-Cold War World: the “end of history?” The Clash of Civilisations World Politics Today The Post-Cold War World: the “end of history?” History “development of men and nations” “chronological narrative of events” History

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The Post-Cold War World: the “end of history?” The Clash of Civilisations World Politics Today

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  1. The Post-Cold War World: the “end of history?” • The Clash of Civilisations • World Politics Today

  2. The Post-Cold War World:the “end of history?”

  3. History • “development of men and nations” • “chronological narrative of events”

  4. History

  5. If yesterday’s event is today’s history, how can there ever be an “end of history?”

  6. Francis Fukuyama • Former US State Department official • Third World Expert • 1989 wrote “The End of History & the Last Man Standing” • 1994 becomes a book

  7. Francis Fukuyama • Fukuyama’s definition of history – “single, coherent, evolutionary process” • Fukuyama – history since time of French Revolution has been driven by a conflict of forces supporting collectivism & those supporting “bourgeois democracy”

  8. Francis Fukuyama • What were the driving forces in the twentieth century or during the Cold War? • 2 competing systems – different ideologies & planned economy versus capitalism

  9. End of the Cold War • Why changes in the Soviet Union under Gorbachev? • Various but economic stagnation of great importance – planned economic system not working • Fukuyama believes once system opened up people in Eastern Europe turned their backs on planned economy and chose capitalism

  10. “Triumphalism” • “end of history” really means that liberal democracy had defeated all other systems – it is the best system • “The triumph of the West…an unabashed victory of economic & political liberalism…&the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism.” • The West/US won the Cold War

  11. Liberal Democracy • Elections • Market allowed to decide – all areas of life • Not told what to do or think • System is better than any other –communism/fascism

  12. Liberal Democracy • Liberal democracy will make the world more safe • (1) democracies do not go to war against each other • (2) globalisation – interdependence • (3) great faith in International Organizations

  13. Liberal Democracy 1990s West pushing this – “Washington consensus” Increased role of the International Monetary Fund/World Bank/World Trade Organisation Does not matter if gap rich/poor increases – experiment most important thing

  14. Time Scale • 1989 crucial – world going through great changes • “velvet revolution” in Eastern Europe – communism dead • 5 December 1989 Pravda admitting Cold War over

  15. Time Scale • Redemocratization in Latin America – Chile/Argentina/Brazil • 1991 1st Gulf War – “new world order” • 1991 end of the Soviet Union

  16. Vast changes taking place that all appear to agree with Fukuyama’s ideas • End of any war time of great optimism & 1989 with end of the Cold War no different • Realism appears to be dead – too much interdependence

  17. Is the “End of History” correct? • Tomorrow – clash of civilizations • Kosovo/Iraq etc • 2002 Fukuyama wrote “Posthuman Future: Consequence of the Biotechnological Revolution” – some regulation needed

  18. Conclusions • 1989 the “End of History” • End of evolutionary process of capitalism versus collectivism – capitalism won • The world will become more peaceful (1) democracies do not fight each other (2) interdependence – globalisation (3) International Organisations

  19. Conclusions • Triumphalism at end of the Cold War • Great hope for a “new world order” • Events at time seem to suggest Fukuyama correct • Events since mid 1990s may suggest otherwise • 2002 Fukuyama suggesting perhaps too hasty

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